Integrated Solid Waste Management

Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is a comprehensive waste prevention, recycling, composting, and disposal program. An effective ISWM system considers how to prevent, recycle, and manage solid waste in ways that most effectively protect human health and the environment.

Law / Policy

Solid Waste Management in Nepal: Current Status and Policy Recommendations

2013 | ADB

Description Managing solid waste is one of the major challenges in urbanization. A survey conducted in all 58 municipalities of Nepal in 2012 found that the average municipal solid waste generation was 317 grams per capita per day. This translates into 1,435 tons per day or 524,000 tons per year of municipal solid waste generation in Nepal. Many of these technically and financially constrained municipalities are still practicing roadside waste pickup from open piles and open dumping, creating major health risks. Recommendations The survey and other assessment undertaken under the technical assistance identified eight key policy recommendations for solid waste management (SWM) in Nepal: an appropriate policy and strategic framework needs to be developed, together with technical guidelines on key issues such as organic composting and landfill operations, to properly guide local bodies in effective SWM; reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) should be promoted.

Waste Management Plan for the Maltese Islands


The first ‘Waste Management Policy’, issued in 1998 incorporated principles such as the sustainability principle and the waste hierarchy (waste minimisation, reuse, recovery etc.). Nevertheless, the implementation of this policy did not meet any of its goals and was largely compromised owing to several reasons (Ginige et al., 2010). During the pre-accession period to the EU, it became clear that several issues concerning waste management in Malta needed to be resolved. This prompted the Maltese government to develop ‘A Solid Waste Management Strategy’ in 2001 (Malta, 2001a). This new policy was based on the previous ‘Waste Management Policy’ and provided a framework to improve the previous strategy and to enable the government to incorporate the necessary regulatory changes required by the EU. At the same time, another document titled ‘Space for Waste – The Waste Management Subject Plan’ was published one month later, providing details of how the policy presented in the previous document would be executed from 2001 to 2010 (Malta, 2001b).

Target setting for ISWM of Bahir Dar City / Ethiopia

2010 | UNEP

The following principles are set for achieving the mission to develop, implement and maintain effective, efficient, affordable, sustainable and accountable solid waste management system in order to ensure citizens good health and maintain the ecological balance of the city and its surroundings through proactive, participatory, and socially responsible manners: Commitment to -Environment and Public Health Safety -Environmental Justice (equity) -Cost Effectiveness -Quality -Public Private Partnership -Innovation and appropriate technologies-Learning by doing -Resource Optimization-Sustainability.

Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan For the City of Nairobi, Kenya

2010 | University of Cape Town

Modern urban living generates a large variety of solid wastes that cannot be assimilated in the city environment. Nairobi is no exception, with each of its estimated 3.5 million residents generating approx. 600 g of solid waste every day. Large improvements in urban cleanliness and health were realized when organized collection of solid waste and its disposal outside of city limits were introduced in European cities in the late 19th century. In Nairobi, only half of the estimated 3000 ton of waste generated every day is collected. To prevent environmental degradation from the large dumpsites then arising, the practice of sanitary landfilling was invented, and more recently, it has been realized that state-of-the-art incinerators, whilst much more costly to operate, offer an even lower environmental footprint.

Scotland's Zero Waste Plan

2010 |

Waste affects every one of us in Scotland. Every day, at home and at work, we acquire, use and dispose of resources. And as individuals and organisations we are becoming increasingly aware of our impact on the environment, and the need to look after the precious resources we all depend on. Scotland has already made huge progress on waste. We have cut dramatically the amount of waste we throw away in landfill sites, and recycling has soared. The Scottish Government has energetically supported local authorities in driving up recycling rates and achieving the European target to cut the amount of biodegradable waste sent to landfill more than 4 years earlier than the deadline of 2013. Our ambitious climate change legislation includes powers to tackle the climate impacts of waste. And we have set up a coordinated Zero Waste Scotland programme to support action on waste.

National Solid Waste Management Strategy, Federated States of Micronesia

2010 | Global Islands Network

This is the Federated States of Micronesia National Solid Waste Management Strategy (NSWMS) which provides the strategic vision and direction for solid waste management over the five year period 2010-2014. The Strategy has been developed in consultation with key stakeholders from each of the four States, as well as the private sector, NGOs, communities, and municipal and national government representatives. The overall goal of this NSWMS is to develop, implement, and maintain a system of integrated solid waste management that deals with the solid waste stream and minimizes the negative impacts on the health of the population and environment of FSM.

Policy and Regulations, Bangkok (Thailand)

2009 | unep

Regarding to the Natural Resources and Environmental Policy, the Government will implement an environment-friendly waste disposal system and enhance waste disposal capacity of local administrative authorities. The Government will also promote the private sector role in research and development for recycling of raw material and clean technology. In addition, the Government will not allow Thailand to become an end receiver of waste, which has to bear the costs of industrial waste and pollution.

Technology for Waste Management and Infrastructure

2009 | unep

The following paragraphs describe the existing practices in the management system relating to WAB. The management system has been described based on generation based waste management system and stakeholder based waste management system.


2009 | unep

Regarding to the Natural Resources and Environmental Policy, the Government will implement an environment-friendly waste disposal system and enhance waste disposal capacity of local administrative authorities. The Government will also promote the private sector role in research and development for recycling of raw material and clean technology. In addition, the Government will not allow Thailand to become an end receiver of waste, which has to bear the costs of industrial waste and pollution.

Legal and institutional framework for solid waste management inVietnam

2009 | Asian Journal on Energy and Environment

In 1986, the Government of Vietnam launched a political and economic reform campaignnamed Doi Moi (Renovation) to guide the country from a centrally-planned economytowards a market economy. Since then, Vietnam has opened up its economy and has enteredthe process of trade liberalization. However, as a result of this rapid success in economicgrowth, there is a corresponding deterioration in the environment, particularly as a result of increased solid waste. In order to maximize the potential positive impacts but at the sametime minimize the negative effects of modernization and industrialization in the country, it isnecessary to take immediate measures to protect the environment.This paper describes how a legal and institutional framework for solid waste environmentalmanagement is being developed and implemented in Vietnam.

Bhutan: Waste Prevention and Management Act of Bhutan, 2009

2009 | FAO

This Act aims at preventing and reducing volumes of waste generation, and at promoting the reuse, recycle and management of waste in an environmentally sound manner. Waste includes solid, liquid, gaseous, hazardous and non-hazardous, organic or inorganic waste from all kinds of sources and also the materials being stored for recycling and the transportation, import and export of waste. The Act empowers the National Environment Commission (NEC) to be the regulatory authority for waste prevention and management. The NEC shall also be responsible for coordinating and overseeing the implementation of the Act. The Act defines responsibilities of implementing agencies and of the public in managing the different categories of waste. It further provides for duties and responsibilities of implementing agencies and the different mechanisms used by them in managing waste including administrative, financial and research mechanisms. The Act further provides for funds financed by the Royal Government of Bhutan and for offences and penalties.

Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan - ISWMP for the City of Maseru/Lesotho: Financial Strategy

2007 | University of Cape Town

This document presents a draft of the Financial Strategy that forms a key part of the three-phase project to develop and implement an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan (ISWMP) for the City of Maseru, Lesotho. The Financial Strategy presented in this document is presented in three parts. Firstly, the financial implications of implementing the ISWMP are considered from a traditional finance model point of view, being in terms of: Initial establishment and potential future capital investment; Ongoing operating expenditure; and Potential revenue or income generation for various parties. Then a list of likely funding sources for implementing each of the actions outlined in the ISWMP is presented. The funding sources were identified by stakeholders during the stakeholder workshops conducted in Maseru. Finally, consideration is given to the indirect financial implications of implementing the ISWMP.

Policy Framework for an Integrated Waste Management Plan in Maseru

2007 | University of Cape Town / UNEP

This document forms part of a series of documents prepared in the 2nd phase of the development of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Programme for Maseru, Lesotho. It focuses on gaps in policies and strategies, and also aims to comment on potential interventions. The document starts by providing a commentary on the relevant section of the Baseline Study. It proceeds to depict and discuss the policy tools and framework in which the ISWMP is developed. Next, the themes for the ISWMP are located in this institutional framework, and actors are identified for requisite actions. Finally, conclusions are presented. This document has been authored by the team of Associate Professor Harro von Blottnitz at the University of Cape Town, in terms of a contract for the United Nations Environment Programme.Purpose: Its purpose is to complement the relevant section of the Baseline Study (the main output of phase 1 of the project). 

National strategy and action plan: Integrated solid waste management

2007 | Ministry of Works and Human Settlement, Bhutan

AGENDA 21 Bhutan is one of the unique and advanced countries which implement the Sustainable Development Principles of the Agenda 21, formulated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, and strongly reaffirmed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002.  The Royal Government of Bhutan requested assistance for the formulation of a National Strategy on Integrated Solid Waste Management. The United Nations Environmental Program and the Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific provided support to the preparation of this document.

City of Melbourne Greenhouse Action Plan 2006-2010

2006 | City of Melbourne

This strategic framework implies that Council should seek to use as little energy as possible through energy efficient buildings, streetlights and other operations. Energy efficiency is the most financially attractive strategy; it saves money on energy bills. Secondly, the energy used should come from renewable sources (eg. Green Power, solar hot water), as much as practically and financially possible. Purchasing renewable energy drives investment in the renewable energy industry in Australia. Thirdly, the remaining emissions should be offset, when all else has been done through energy efficiency and renewable energy purchase or generation.

Policy and Regulations Wuxi New District

2006 | unep

China implements a multi-level administration mode on solid waste management through policy development, law/act establishment, technical standards and other regulations. All these management regulations are effective in Wuxi New District (WND). China national legislative and regulatory framework for solid waste management dictates roles and responsibilities at each level of government, including requirements of private sector service agents and waste generators. Typically, central government laws delegate solid waste service responsibilities to local governments and set basic standards, including occupational and environmental health and safety standards. Municipal government laws outline service norms to be provided and the participatory requirements of each waste generator. Municipal laws often define practices that are illegal (such as littering and clandestine dumping) and impose related sanctions. For example, WND government has established many local regulations according to the special situation of WND. This report collected most of these documents such as laws/acts, policy regulations as much as possible. These documents are classified as law/act, technical standard and policy regulation

National Waste Management Plan, Poland

2006 | Ministerstwo Środowiska , Rzeczpospolita Polska

The Polish Act of 27 April 2001 on Waste (Official Journal No. 62, Item 628, further amended 1)), introduced obligation to prepare waste management plans which are subject to at least each 4 years updating. The first such national waste management plan (NWMP) was approved by Resolution No. 219 of the Council of Ministers, Republic of Poland, of 29 October 2002 (Governmental Gazette of 2003, No. 11, Item 159). The deadline for its updating will expire in 2006. Report on implementation of the National Waste Management Plan for the period between 29 October 2002 and 29 October 2004 showed only inconsiderable progress in the scope of improvement in waste management, in particular, municipal waste and urban waste water sludge. A number of relevant recommendations are included therein, a part of which has been already implemented, whereas another one has been under implementation. 

Sweden: Strategy for Sustainable Waste Management


On 18 December 2003 the Swedish Government instructed the Environmental Protection Agency to draw up a national waste plan. The Swedish EPA proposes that the plan be renewed by the end of 2010, since the new plan will then be able to incorporate new national waste statistics and revised environmental objectives. While drafting this report the authors have engaged in a dialogue with representatives from public agencies, trade associations and operators. The Agency has referred an early draft of the plan to those concerned for consultative purposes. The current version of Part 2 has been referred to the Waste Council. Part 1 has been presented orally and discussed on two occasions at meetings of the Waste Council. It will be possible to take additional comments on the plan into account when it is revised in 1 – 2 years’ time. The plan has been prepared at the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Editorial changes have been made following decision and submission of the plan on 30 September. 

Pacific Regional Solid Waste Management Strategy 2010-2015

2010 | SPREP

This is the Pacific Islands region’s Strategy for solid waste management, setting the strategic direction for the period 2010-2015. It is supported by a highlevel implementation plan which sets out the key actions that will be taken to deliver the vision of the strategy. This Regional Solid Waste Management Strategy, 2010-2015 provides a framework within which to achieve the vision of “A healthy and a socially, economically and  environmentally sustainable Pacific for future generations”, and the overall goal that Pacific Island Countries and Territories will adopt costeffective and self-sustaining Solid Waste Management systems to protect the environment, in order to promote a healthy population and encourage economic growth.

UK: Government Review of Waste Policy in England 2011 Action Plan; Scotland Zero Waste Plan

2011 | Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs

Waste affects us all. We all create waste, we care if our domestic refuse service does not work well, and we notice when flytipping or litter affects our local environment.The breadth and impact of waste and resource use policies is very broad. The way we behave at home, at work or as consumers has a real impact.We need, as a society, to value products and care about how they are made and used, and how we deal with them when we no longer need or want them. If not, we will not only increase costs at a time when we are facing real challenges in reducing the deficit, but we will also have a negative impact on our environment. 

Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan for City of Matale, Sri Lanka

| National Cleaner Production Centre

City of Matale a small city in the Central province boasts a history dating back to over two millennia but today developing into a commercial and residential suburban city. The Municipal Council of Matale has faced similar problems like all other local government authorities in carrying out effective solid waste management to the satisfaction of the community. The Mayor of Matale and his elected representatives as well as the key Government officials are committed to make the city of Matale Clean & Green. Recognizing the commitment and the request for assistance by Matale Municipal Council (MMC), International Environmental Technology Centre(IETC) of United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) in Japan decided to provide technical and financial assistance to develop a ISWM action plan for Matale. National Cleaner Production Centre, Sri Lanka an institute under UNIDO was identified as the local partner to provide technical assistance and serve as the local counterpart. The three partners enter into formal agreements and the project was launched in November with a awareness seminar and a training workshop.

Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan (ISWMP) for the City of Maseru/Lesotho

2006 | University of Cape Town

This document presents the 2nd draft of the Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan (ISWMP) developed for the City of Maseru, capital of the Kingdom of Lesotho. The document is in line with the deliverable for Activity 3: Draft ISWM Plan & Workshop  Produce a second draft of the ISWM plan, based on feedback from the workshop and consultation with stakeholder on the first draft, as stated in the Memorandum of Understanding concluded between the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the University of Cape Town (UCT) Environmental & Process Systems Engineering Research Group. The draft plan was developed on the basis of past experience, independent observation, interrogation of available information (including the baseline study of waste generation in Maseru), and interaction with relevant stakeholders. The result is a concise, easy to read action plan of 15-20 pages with key deliverables and timelines. The action plan is supported by a number of technical support pages which provide details on each proposed action. The ISWMP will be supported by a technical background report on Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) which provides further guidance on achieving the deliverables.

Taiwan: Major Environmental Policies (Monthly)

2023 | EAP.GOV.TW

Environmental testing and analysis is an important part of environmental protection. Accurate testing and analysis data are required to establish a basis for various types of work such as formulation of environmental laws and regulations, environmental impact assessment (EIA) investigations, environmental quality monitoring, pollution prevention and controls, and inspection and control of public nuisances.

National Solid Waste Management Policy for the Republic of Maldives

| Environment Research Centre, Ministry of Environment, Energy and Water

The National Solid Waste Management Policy is the product of the tireless efforts of a dedicated technical team that comprised a National policy Coordinator, International and local consultants, a Project Review Committee, the National Solid Waste Technical Committee, stakeholders in the private and public sectors as well as the staff of the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Water as represented by the Environment Research Centre. The frame work for the National Solid Waste Management Policy was developed with the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme that funded in 2004.

Taking responsibility for our waste: Consultation document

2021 | Ministry for the Environment, Newzealand

This consultation document sets out proposals for a new national waste strategy and options for developing new, comprehensive waste legislation. The proposed waste strategy sets an innovative, bold direction to transform the way that we think about and manage waste. The options for new waste legislation support the transition to a more circular economy, and better regulate the management of waste and products and materials circulating in the economy.

Fiji: National Solid Waste Management strategy 2011-2014

2010 | Republic of Fiji

Fiji recognizes that waste management is a pressing issue that needs immediate action. It is recognized as a major concern with the potential to cause negative impacts on our national development activities including public health, the environment, food security, tourism and trade. To address these impacts, the National Solid Waste Management Strategy and Action Plan 2008-2010 was formulated and in the two years since the launching of the Strategy, there has been some progress on improving the management of solid waste. However, most solid waste is still currently being thrown in open dumpsites, illegally disposed off in the sea on unused land, or in the streets. Burning of municipal waste is also quite common, with the population being continuously exposed to the harmful health effects of carcinogenic toxins. This revised strategy, developed in consultation with stakeholders, strives to address the environmental, health, and economic impacts of wastes over the period 2011-2014, by building on the progress and successes achieved under the 2008-2010 strategy. It is supported by an implementation plan which sets out the key actions that will be taken to deliver the vision of the strategy. 

Waste Management Policy in Bhutan

2012 | Centre for Science and Environment

The Waste Prevention and Management Regulation, 2012, which came into effect on 18 April 2012 in Bhutan is a comprehensive regulation for the waste minimization and management. It establishes various agencies and monitoring authorities for the effective implementation of this regulation, and is applied to all point sources and/or point of origin of different types of waste and their management. National Environment Commission (NEC) is the apex monitoring body under this regulation which shall coordinate and monitor the overall performance of Implementing Agencies designated to efficiently implement the provisions of this Regulation. And, the Royal Bhutan Police shall assist the implementing agencies in achieving full compliance. This regulation is a strong measure to deal with the existing bad scenario of waste disposal and management in Bhutan.

South Africa: National Waste Management Strategy

| Department of Environmental Affairs, Republic of South Africa

This site is an initiative of the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA). It is intended to provide an opportunity for members of the public, businesses, consumer groups, NGOs and other civil organisations to provide feedback and input into the National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) as it is developed. Waste Management is one of the most significant challenges facing us as a country, and government is committed to tackling the problem effectively. Waste and pollution form a serious threat to human health and the integrity of the environment. Everyone has a role to play in waste management, and this is your opportunity to become informed on the topic and make your voice heard. The National Waste Management Strategy, as prescribed by the National Environmental Management: Waste Act, 2008 (Act no. 59 of 2008), has been drafted, gazetted and released for public comment. DEA would appreciate your comments on the strategy.  Pls visit the site.

Romania: National Waste Management Strategy

2002 | Ministry of Environment and Water Management, Romania

The National Waste Management Strategy was developed by the Ministry of Environment and Water Management, according to the responsibilities reverting to this institution following the transposition of European legislation in the field of waste management and according to the provisions of Emergency Government Ordinance no. 78/2000 on the regime of waste, approved with amendments and completions by Law no. 426/2001. The strategy was drafted for the interval 2003 - 2013, and it is to be revised on a regular basis, according to technical progress and  environment protection requirements.  The National Waste Management Strategy aims to create the necessary framework for the development and implementation of an environmentally and economically sound integrated waste management system. The National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) shall be approved by Government Decision and shall be reviewed on a regular basis.  The provisions contained in NWMS shall apply to all types of waste defined in Emergency Government Ordinance no. 78/2000 on the regime  of waste, approved with amendments and completions by Law no. 426/2001.

Tajikistan Municipal Development Strategy

| International City/County Management Association

ICMA is working on a World Bank-funded contract with the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, local governments in the country, and the central agency in charge of public services to design a mid-term strategy and action plan to improve the performance of local governments and utilities in municipal service delivery. The purpose of the strategy and plan is to "de-monopolize"local infrastructure development and service provision, transferring more responsibility for water, sewerage, solid waste management, and district heating to local governments. The context for this project is the country’s National Development Strategy 2015, which identifies reforms in local infrastructure services as a key challenge. Recent legislation also supports decentralization. Pls visit the site for more details.



The Gazette of India Extraordinary Part-II-Section-3-Sub-section (ii) Published by Authority No. 471New Delhi, Friday, May 23, 2003, MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTSNOTIFICATIONNEW DELHI, THE 20th May , 2003S.O. 593(E).-Whereas the draft of certain rules called the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Amendment Rules, 2002 was published under the notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of Environment and Forests number S.O. 553(E), dated 21st May, 2002 in the Gazette of India, Part-II, Section 3, Sub-section (ii) of the same date inviting objections and suggestions from all persons likely to be affected thereby, before theexpiry of the period of sixty days from the date on which copies of the Gazette containing the said notification were made available to the public;And whereas copies of the said Gazette were made available to the public on the 5th day of June, 2002. 

Case Studies

A framework for a decision support system for municipal solid waste landfill design

2013 | Sage

A decision support system (Landfill Advisor or LFAdvisor) was developed to integrate current knowledge of barrier systems into a computer application to assist in landfill design. The program was developed in Visual Basic and includes an integrated database to store information. LFAdvisor presents the choices available for each liner component (e.g. leachate collection system, geomembrane liner, clay liners) and provides advice on their suitability for different situations related to municipal solid waste landfills (e.g. final cover, base liner, lagoon liner). Unique to LFAdvisor, the service life of each engineered component is estimated based on results from the latest research. LFAdvisor considers the interactions between liner components, operating conditions, and the existing site environment. LFAdvisor can be used in the initial stage of design to give designers a good idea of what liner components will likely be required, while alerting them to issues that are likely to arise. A systems approach is taken to landfill design with the ultimate goal of maximising long-term performance and service life.

A reverse supply chain can enhance waste management programmes

2013 | Sage

Outside the waste management community there is a predisposi-tion to think of waste materials as undesirable objects that have no connection with the product they were or the processes from which they were produced. Used electronics, for example, are often labelled as hazardous or special waste, ignoring the soci-oeconomic benefits the equipment provided and the positive environmental, social and economic impacts that could be derived from reuse (after refurbishment or remanufacturing), or recycling and recovery of its valuable component parts. Furthermore, while transboundary flows of products and raw materials are normal, international flows of waste are seen with different lenses. There are of course some justified cases, includ-ing for instance open burning of insulated copper cables to remove insulation, the bootlegging of contaminated plastics and paper disguised as recyclables and nuclear waste transport, but there are many other cases of waste flows where an unjusti-fied paranoia seems to inhibit advances in the reverse supply chain performance.

Food residue recycling by swine breeders in a developing economy: A case study in Da Nang, Viet Nam

2012 | FacultyofEnvironmentalEngineering,TheUniversityofKitakyushu,1-1,Hibikino,Wakamatsu,Kitakyushu,Fukuoka808-0135,Japan

This study provides a detailed description of food residue collection by swine breeders in Da Nang, Viet Nam. In January 2011, the study surveyed 30 swine breeders in two villages with respect to locations, methods, prices, quantities, and prospects for food residue collection. The sampled swine breeders regularly visited 55 locations in central Da Nang to collect raw food residue. They then transferred the food residue to their piggeries, boiled it, and fed it to their swine. A regression analysis revealed that the total amount of food residue collected by a farm depends on the number of swine in the farm and the number of collections made per day. Swine breeders in Da Nang were estimated to collect 26.3 metric tons of organic waste per day, which amounted to 4.1% of domestic waste collected by the local government. Among the sampled swine breeders, 93% answered that they would continue using food residue for the next five years.

Kampot Solid Waste Management Baseline Survey

2011 | UNESCAP

Current solid waste management systems in Asia are strained, and landfill space is fast becoming a rare commodity. Governments face increasing costs for disposal, while public health and the environment suffer from the damaging effects of untreated solid waste. In 2009, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific embarked on a regional project, Pro-poor and Sustainable Solid Waste Management in Secondary Cities and Small Towns, to find appropriate approaches to waste management that would transform waste products into valuable resources, improve waste collection services and provide better income and working conditions for waste pickers. The overarching objective of the project is to enable participating towns to develop and execute solid waste management strategies that are decentralized, particularly benefit the urban poor, contribute to low-carbon development priorities and can be partly financed through the sale of carbon credits. Cambodia is one of the countries targeted in the project. Based on the outcomes of workshops and consultations with civil society groups, local government representatives and other United Nations organizations, Kampot town was selected for a baseline study, the first step in developing the pilot project. The study centred on collecting accurate information on solid waste management in Kampot.

Best Practices on Solid Waste Management of Nepalese Cities

2008 | Practical Action

In fact solid waste management is a big challenge to all established and emerging towns of Nepal. Basically municipalities are giving preferences only on collecting the waste and dumping it. The principle of 3R (waste reduction, re-use and recycle) are not prioritised by the municipalities for effective sustainable waste management. Further, municipalities have not yet fully recognised the important stakeholders of waste management like NGOs/CBOs and private formal and informal sector which can be involved during the planning, implementation and monitoring for effective waste management. This book contains a range of best practices on solid waste management from various municipalities of Nepal. It also contains the admirable initiatives of national and local NGOs/CBOs. I hope that this book will be highly instrumental regarding solid waste management to urban centres as well as emerging towns of developing countries.

Altered landscapes, altered livelihoods: The shifting experience of informal waste collecting during Hanoi’s urban transition

2008 | Elsevier

A growing body of literature is concerned with urbanization processes in contemporary Vietnam and how the country globalizing cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City are increasingly becoming spaces of consumption. However, much less is known about how these changing spaces accommodate labour, and in turn support livelihoods. Using published empirical data on Hanoi informal waste collectors from 1992 and my own data, including a survey of 575 waste collectors and 44 interviews, collected on Hanoi informal waste collectors in 2006, I explore the experiences of informal waste collectors (waste pickers and itinerant junk buyers) in Vietnam capital city of Hanoi. I argue that Vietnam globalizing economy and urban transition have been a catalyst for the growth of the informal waste collector population in Hanoi as well as a partial player in the gendering of this group and the work they undertake.

Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: Case study of Tianjin, China

2008 | Elsevier

The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste (MSW) management have been highlighted in China, due to the continually increasing amount of MSW being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. Of particular interest is greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, aided by the Kyoto Mechanisms. China is an important case study for this global issue; however, an analysis of the entire life cycle of MSW management on GHG emissions is not available for China. This study evaluates the current and possible patterns of MSW management with regard to GHG emissions, using life cycle assessment (LCA), based on the Tianjin case. We assess the baseline scenario, reflecting the existing MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, five exploring waste treatment technology innovations and one exploring integrated MSW management, to quantitatively predict potentials of GHG mitigation for Tianjin. 

Solid Waste Management: Issues and Challenges in Asia

2007 | Asian Productivity Organization

Solid-waste management is a major challenge in urban areas throughout the world.  Without an effective and efficient solid-waste management program, the waste generated from various human activities, both industrial and domestic, can result in health hazards and have a negative impact on the environment.  Understanding the waste generated, the availability of resources, and the environmental conditions of a particular society are important to developing an appropriate waste-management system.

National Solid Waste Management Plan for Iraq

2007 | Waste and Resources Research Repository (WARRR)

After decades of turmoil and international sanctions many of the key infrastructures within Iraq have fallen into disrepair, leading to a terminal decline in the provision of basic and essential services. This is particularly true of waste and resource management which has seen years of underdevelopment and deterioration. This has resulted in a lack of provision of basic public services in the waste sector which have been replaced by a burgeoning black market in waste collection, disposal and recycling. As such a National Solid Waste Management Plan (NSWMP) for Iraq was developed in2007 in order to plan the strate gic development of all aspects of waste management in the country over the coming twenty years. In particular the NSWMP focused on policy development and integrated planning in the areas of regulatory framework, economic aspects, institutional capacity, so cial education and technical and operational development. This paper and associated presentation outlines the key objectives, challenges and subsequent recommendations contained within the NSWMP for Iraq.

Proposed approach for solid waste management for Vinh City, Nghe An Province, Vietnam

1997 | Elsevier

A plan is presented for utilization of the municipal solid waste management (MSW) system in the city of Vinh, a provincial capital of Nghe An province, Vietnam. Special emphasis will be given to the city of Vinh, a highly populated urban center. The urban inner city area of Vinh with a population of about 200,000 currently is estimated to produce about 240 tons/day of MSW from which 82 tons/day is presently collected for disposal by dumping onto a simple landfill about 5 km from the city center. This practice, combined with the uncollected remainder, results in acute problems of health hazards and environmental degradation. Facing these problems, an earier proposal was prepared for aerobic composting of MSW to produce organic fertilizer and at the same time to improve the urban environment. However, due to disadvantages of the aerobic composting method and limitations of this earlier proposal as lacking on collection performance, management capability and financial aspects, as well as promotion of community participation, a more comprehensive approach and plan is discussed in this paper, with a focus on anaerobic composting including both biogas recovery for fuel as well as utilization of resultant anaerobic composts as the competitor for aerobic composting. Integral to this plant will be a top-to-bottom technical/management training program for staff, including local consultants. Further, a comprehensive hygiene and health eductation program for the Vinh community is recommended to ensure the project's success.

Plastic Bag ban in Dhaka City, Bangladesh


It was World War II that placed plastics at the center of necessity. A rubber substitute called vinyl was used by Allied troops for waterproof tents and boots. An ultra-light insulation -polyethylene gave the British the ability to install radar on planes and ships and a critical advantage over the otherwise superior German Air Force and Navy. By 1979, plastic production surpassed that of steel, ushering in what Stephen Fenichell, author of Plastic: The Making of a Synthetic Century, calls the Plastic Age, a title as indicative of human progress as the Iron Age or the Bronze Age. Long-lasting super plastics are fast replacing metal in buildings, machines, and vehicles. The very endurance for which plastic was- celebrated, now haunts it. It is "the Rasputin of modern materials," says Fenichell. "You can break it, chop it, dice it, shred it, burn it, and bury it, but it stubbornly refuses to die." Eyen the plastics industry admits waste is a big problem, and a sub-industry of "green plastics" is trying to make plastics mortal. Polyethylene is a form of plastics. So management of post-consumer polyethylene shopping bags is a function of management of plastic wastes and an integral part of management of solid wastes. It was only in the 1950s that plastics began to come into wide use in international arena, yet within few years, production has risen at an unparalleled rate. World consumption is now comparable with that of all non-ferrous metals. Forecasts concerning the production of resins indicate that the economies of many developed and developing countries are increasingly relying on the use of plastics. In this regard the most intractable problem relating to plastics and the environment has been so far their disposal. Landfilling on one hand is increasingly seen to pose problems of environmental impact, because the availability of suitable sites is decreasing day by day. Moreover, the leaching of the plastic additives into the ground waters is now being questioned. On the other hand, uncontrolled burning of plastics including polyethylene in the dumping sites and other areas is not acceptable environment-wise. The controlled incineration of plastic waste is also raising concerns in some cases. Polyethylene materials are not bio-degradable. Whenever a polyethylene bag is thrown away, it does not decompose through natural process. It contributes to the accumulation of non-destructive waste of permanent nature. If anybody looks at any garbage dumping site, he will observe this fact that although other garbage matter get decomposed and merged into the soil but polyethylene bags remain intact with their different colours especially the black coloured polyethylene bags. Polyethylene remains intact in the soil and disturbs the flow of nutrients to the soil and hinders entering sunlight. It destroys the beneficial bacteria of soil and losses soil fertility. It hinders the way of soil compaction, which in the long run effects the construction of foundation of the different structure. The use of polyethylene is not environment friendly. Medical reports find it as an agent of cancer, skin diseases and other health problems. The users are more exposed to these types of health hazards when polyethylene is used to pack bread, biscuits, potato chips or other food items. In the developed countries, food is wrapped in food-graded plastic or polyethylene, but in Bangladesh this was not strictly followed and sometimes colorants are used, some of which may be carcinogenic. Polyethylene industries for shopping bag production emerged in Bangladesh in early 80's and within a decade the industry reached in such a level that the jute bag production forced to be almost closed.  The use of polyethylene shopping bags had been so enormous that one could find the polyethylene bags everywhere i.e in the street, dumpsites, drains, ditches, open-fields, roop tops, hanging from trees and overhead cables, floating on ponds, canals, rivers. Survey report showed that near about 10 million polyethylene bags were used everyday and every year about 3000 million bags were dumped in Dhaka City alone. The steadily growing use of polyethylene bags posed an ominous environmental problem in the city as well as in rural areas. This enormous use of polyethylene bags led to - severe environmental impacts like soil degradation, loss of soil fertility, blocking up of drainage and sewerage systems, causing water logging and the spread of harmful microbes and bacteria. The worst example of adverse effect caused due to polyethylene bags was the delaying process of recession of flood water in Dhaka city during 1998.

Cash for Trash: Solving Dhaka Waste Problems

| Ashoka Innovators for the public

In early 1994, two young Urban Planners completing their graduate studies approached a government official in the Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) with their concerns about the growing problem of solid waste in their city. They outlined their ideas for solving the problem, which included getting communities involved in composting their organic waste. The pair even offered to donate their time to the municipal body and to other gover nment agencies to make this a reality. Unconvinced, the official challenged them saying, "If community-based compost plants are such a great idea why don't you do it yourselves?"


Ulaanbaatar Waste Management Improvement Strategy and Action Plan 2017-2030

2017 | RRC.AP

The UWMISAP is divided into five chapters. The first chapter provides a background for the need for a city waste management strategy for Ulaanbaatar and outlines the process of developing a strategy and action plan. The existing situation of Ulaanbaatar’s solid waste generation as well as waste handling and legal framework are discussed in Chapter 2. Based on the baseline information provided in Chapter 2, a list of strategies to fill existing gaps and tap potential opportunities is described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 presents specific actions to be accomplished under each strategic objective. Chapter 5 concludes with arrangements for implementing and monitoring the UWMISAP.

Mongolia National Waste Management Improvement Strategy and Action Plan 2017-2030

2017 | AIT RRC.AP

The NWMISAP is arranged into five chapters. The first chapter provides the background for the need of a waste management strategy, the existing situation of waste management in Mongolia and the current policy and legal framework. Chapter Two describes the strategy development process. Based on this baseline information, a list of strategies to fill the existing gaps and tap the potential opportunities are laid out in the third chapter. Translating these strategic objectives into actions is presented in Chapter Four. The fifth chapter concludes with arrangements for implementation and monitoring of the NWMISAP.

How to trade recoverable wastes in an environmentally sound and economically efficient manner: A Guidance Manual for OECD Countries

2009 | OECD

This Guidance Manual assists national governments and authorities to implement the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development control system for transboundary movements of wastes destined for recovery operations.

Guidelines on how to design an appropriate waste fee

2011 | ISWA

These guidelines were developed with the aim of outlining the principles, practices and applications of waste management fees.

Landfill Mining - Key Issue Paper

2013 | ISWA

The paper highlights the key social, environmental and economic factors that need to be considered before undertaking an Landfill Mining project.

Guidelines for Design and Operation of Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in Tropical Climates

2013 | ISWA

This document is a set of guidelines catered specifically for low and middle income countries that handle municipal solid waste through landfill. The document targets landfill operators and waste management authorities in tropical and subtropical countries, as most of the developing areas tend to focus in the region.

International Guidelines (1) for the Evaluation of the Status of Municipal Waste Landfills for Economically Developing Countries

2011 | ISWA

The International Guidelines for Landfill Evaluation contains essential parameters for the evaluation of landfill Standards. The International Solid Waste Association Working Group on Landfill supports the transition away from open dumps toward sanitary landfilling. Where economic resources are very limited it will, in many cases, be sufficient to use rather simple methods to make substantial improvement to the environment.

Landfill Gas Handbook Manual

2005 | ISWA

The International Solid Waste Association Working Group on Sanitary Landfill, was awarded a grant from the European Union (EU) to develop a practical handbook covering basic field procedures and practices of Landfill Biogas Operations. The objective is to provide EU landfill managers, site operators, and field technicians with a practical reference guide that can be used on a daily basis and contribute toward efficient, safe landfill biogas operations.

Landfill Operations Guidelines 2nd Edition

2010 | ISWA

The Landfill Operations Guidelines were first produced in 2002 as a loose leaf document to assist waste managers with the day to day operations of landfills. They have now been updated by the International Solid Waste Association Working Group for Landfill to reflect current operational practice and as appropriate some technical guidance.

Training Module: Closing an Open Dumpsite and Shifting from Open Dumping to Controlled Dumping and to Sanitary Land Filling

2005 | UNEP

A policy shift from open dumping to sanitary landfilling has implications on local preparedness to operate and manage a landfill as well as on how the current dumpsites will be abandoned. Consequently, there is a need to build and enhance the technical and management capacities of local authorities. In recognition of this need and as part of the United Nations Environment Programme's global effort to promote environmentally sound technologies, the International Environmental Technology Centre has developed this training module for capacity building.

Guidance Manual on Environmentally Sound Management of Waste


Following the adoption of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Council Recommendation C(2004)100 in 2004 on Environmentally Sound Management of Waste, member countries wished to reinforce the implementation of this legal Act by issuing a practical Guidance Manual. This publication aims at facilitating the implementation of an environmentally sound waste management policy by governments on one hand, and by waste treatment facilities on the other hand.

What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management

2012 | World Bank

What a Waste provides a quick snapshot of the state of today's global solid waste management practices. A credible estimate is made for what the situation will look like in 2025. Improving solid waste management, especially in low-income countries, is an urgent priority.

1000 Terms in Solid Waste Management

2013 | ISWA

In its role as a catalyst for research, development, control and practice in the field of wastes management, the International Solid Waste Association has identified a need for an international glossary of terms and has published this book to meet that need

Pacific Environment Outlook


The Pacific Environment Outlookwas prepared simultaneously with the Pacific Regional Assessment on SustainableDevelopment to feed into the Barbados +10 process and ensure consistency of much of reporting.Much of theinformation has been drawn from national and regional reporting to the World Summit on Sustainable Development(WSSD), preparations for the Barbados +10,and from key reports for international and regional multilateralenvironmental agreements.The Pacific Environment Outlookpresents environmental trends by assimilating the drivers that directly and indirectlyaffect the state of the environment. It examines the linkages between social and economic activities and theenvironment in the Pacific SIDS,highlighting their social,economic and environmental vulnerability.The use of nationalassessment reports for the Barbados +10 has enabled the portrayal of national and regional priorities in terms ofthematic environmental issues and cross-cutting institutional capacity needs. This should place Pacific Island Countriesand Territories in a better position to ensure that initiatives to address the human impacts on the environmentincorporate means to reduce socio-economic pressures.It is my sincere hope that this report — Pacific Environment Outlook— will be a useful resource during deliberationsat the Barbados +10 Conference.

Solid Waste Management in Vietnam - An Industrial Ecology Study

| Columbia University

In the past decade, strong economic growth and uncontrolled urbanization have greatly magnified the problems with Vietnam’s solid waste management system, pushing waste management to the forefront of environmental challenges with which it must contend. Not only has there been an increase in the amounts of waste generated, the composition of the waste has changed as well. The current system is already overtaxed due to lack of institutional capacity and insufficient human and capital resources as can be evidenced by low collection rates and inadequate waste facilities. Given socio-economic trends, the issue of how to deal with its solid waste will only become more critical as Vietnam industrializes.

The world Bank Group - Tajikistan Partnership program snapshot

2014 | World Bank

Due to underinvestment, the water supply and sanitation infrastructure has suffered extensive degradation over recent decades and needs substantial rehabilitation. Because of the limited financial and operational capacity of operators, water supply and sanitation systems are inadequately maintained and renewed, and their degradation results in unreliable and inefficient service. The availability of sustainable drinking water and sanitation services is a challenge in both urban and rural areas, with only 59 percent of the population having access to a public water supply (versus the 79 percent Millennium Development Goal [MDG] target for 2015). In urban areas, approximately 50 percent of the population has house connections, and 32 percent yard connections. In rural areas, only 20 percent have access to centralized water supply systems, mainly through public standpipes and yard connections. Water quality in most systems does not meet national drinking standards. Furthermore, only 14 percent of the population has access to centralized sanitation services (44 percent in urban areas and 3 percent in rural areas). Finally, most urban centers do not have adequate solid waste collection, disposal, or recycling.

Optimizing Municipal Solid Waste collection using Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization in GIS based environments: A case study at Danang city, Vietnam

2014 | Elsevier

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an increasing concern at any municipality in the world, and is one of the primary factors that contribute greatly to the rising of climate change and global warming. MSW collection and disposal especially in the context of developing countries are indeed the urgent requirements for the sustainable development of environment and landscape, which rule over the quality-of-life and life expectancy of human being. In this paper, we concentrate on MSW collection at Danang city, which is one of four largest municipalities in Vietnam having high quantity of the average waste load per person and is bearing negative impacts of climate change such as severe weather conditions and natural disasters as a result. A novel vehicle routing model for the MSW collection problem at Danang city is presented. A novel hybrid method between Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization and ArcGIS is proposed to generate optimal solutions from the vehicle routing model of Danang. Experimental results on the real dataset of Danang show that the proposed hybrid method obtains better total collected waste quantity than the relevant ones including the manual MSW collection procedure that is currently applied at this city.

Remote Rural Communities Development Project (RRCDP) to the rescue of Cardamom and Citrus Industry in Bhutan


Citrus (mandarin orange as commonly called) and cardamom are two top export cash crops that contribute substantially to Bhutanese GDP. These two commodities featured as the top 9th and 10thexport items for Bhutan in the Bhutan Trade Statistics 2012 earning Nu. 452.63 million and Nu. 424.68 million respectively.   However, over the last decade or so, the industry has been hit by diseases; Citrus greening or HLB and Cardamom wilt & blight disease causing considerable damage and loss to the horticulture industry. The only way to cope with these diseases, was to get rid of the existing diseased stocks and replace it with disease free plants. It was, however, difficult to get disease free planting materials in want of adequate propagation houses. To the respite of this problem, RRCDP project, a World Bank loan project at MoAF has supported construction of propagation houses and supply of disease free grafted citrus seedlings and disease free cardamom seedlings. The project has already constructed seven cardamom propagation houses and a citrus propagation house at the National Seed Centre, Bhur. The cardamom propagation houses were constructed at a cost of Nu. 10,530,132.19 while the citrus propagation house was constructed at a cost of Nu. 9,574,123.88. Propagation of the planting materials has already started in the newly constructed propagation houses. The benefit of these propagation houses would extend beyond the project areas. From 2015 onwards, an estimated 60,000 numbers of citrus grafts and 252,000 numbers of cardamom seedlings will be available for sale on a yearly basis at the National Seed Centre, Bhur. This will benefit the citrus and cardamom growers as well as the nation in reviving the cash crop industry and in generating much needed revenue. Rehabilitation of the diseased orchards and plantations are also a priority activity for the Department of Agriculture in the 11th Five Year Plan.

Brief on solid waste management in Pakistan

2014 | Pakistan Environmental Proection Agency

Solid waste collection by government owned and operated services in Pakistan's cities currently averages only 50\% of waste quantities generated; however, for cities to be relatively clean, at least 75\% of these quantities should be collected. Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has a proper solid waste management system right from collection of solid waste up to its proper disposal. Much of the uncollected waste poses serious risk to public health through clogging of drains, formation of stagnant ponds, and providing breeding ground for mosquitoes and flies with consequent risks of malaria and cholera.

Future waste - waste future

2014 | Sage

˜Future waste" is a term not yet established in the waste community; actually it is a paradoxon. ˜Future waste" is not dealing with current solid waste, but products that will become waste in the future. Due to advances in science and technology and priorities in politics, large quantities of these, often technologically complex, products have already entered the anthropogenic stock within a short period of time or are about to do so in the near future. As the majority of these items have relatively long life spans they will not immediately play an important role in waste management, however, once the product life time is over meaningful quantities of this ˜future waste" will be generated. At that time we need to have appropriate waste management solutions available as these wastes: (1) contain valuable resources (e.g. precious metals and critical raw materials, usually in very low concentrations) and (2) pose specific new challenges to prevent hazards associated with their treatment (e.g. nano-materials).


2013 | United Nations Environment Programme

The statistics are stark: 3.5 billion people, or half of the world’s population, are without access to waste management services, and open dumping remains the prevalent waste-disposal method in most low- and lower middle- Income countries. More than 1.3 billion tonnes of municipal solid waste were estimated to have been generated in 2012 and 2.2 billion tonnes a year are expected by 2025. Urbanization, industrialization, increasing population and economic development are all contributing to the rise in waste and also to its increasing complexity and hazardousness. 

Country Analysis Paper

2013 | UNCRD

Rapid growth of economic urbanization and industrial development are the cause of more concerns within solid waste management. In this regard, the Ministry of Environment is the institution responsible for protecting the environment and human health has developed the guidelines as well as related orders to solve the problems and enhance environmental quality in Cambodia that include: the development of legal instruments and related regulations. Refer to annual report conducted by Department of Pollution Control, solid waste collection and disposal at dumping sites in cities and districts is about 933,144 tones with increasing rate amount 10\% every year. In addition, the Royal Government of Cambodia is also pays great attention on this matter by releasing the mandate that no flying trashed plastic bags in the air along the street and this objective needs to be achieved by 2015 in all cities of the Kingdom of Cambodia. In addition, there are more activities have already put in place that include the contest of Clean City, Clean Resorts and Good Service, the establishment of the National Committee for Costal Management and Development of Cambodia and National Council for Green Growth of Cambodia. To implementation this order, Municipality of Phnom Penh has also established a Committee to implement the rubbish separation plan and also lead the penalty campaign for the people who throw the rubbish on the street or in the public area. 


2013 | Vietnam Ministry of resources and environment

Investigation of different amendments for dump reclamation in Northern Vietnam

2013 | Elsevier

Giant spoil dumps originate in the course of open-cast mining. The initial properties of Triassic spoil as well as pedogenesis are characterized by weathering processes. Due to the poor conditions in dump spoil a natural succession of plants or a re-vegetation is a lengthy process. The Chinh Bac field experiment (Ha Long City, Quang Ninh province, Vietnam) was planned to investigate the possible impacts of three amendments – charred rice straw, power station ashes and fine material originating from the mining area in combination with sieved spoil of substrate quality – to enhance plant growth. The main focus of this study was directed towards the impact of added amendments on spoil chemical parameters. The investigations demonstrated that simply sieving the spoil leads to better substrate conditions. It increases the fine material which in turn leads to easier plantation conditions. At the same time oxidative processes and leaching acid products are stimulated which raises the pH values afterwards. The application of charred rice straw increased the amount of alkaline cations, in particular potassium, boosting the pH value. This led to an enhanced supply of nutrients for the plants in comparison to the other amendment variations which were very poor in nutrient availability. Adding power station ash resulted in a short-term pH value increase, however potential pollution caused by heavy metals cannot be ruled out. The pyrite containing fine material was identified as the poorest amendment. It may allow vegetation to grow quickly, however the proceeding weathering processes cause a strong acidification. This mobilizes heavy metal and aluminum ions which prevent healthy plant growth.

National state of Environment 2011 - Solid waste

2013 | Centre For Environmental Monitoring Portal Vietnam Environment Administration

The process of industrialization in Vietnam is currently taking place rapidly with the formation and development of many production sectors and increased needs for goods, materials, and energy, boosting national socio-economic development. However, this has resulted in serious concerns about the environment, especially the handling of solid waste including domestic waste, industrial waste, agricultural waste, medical waste, construction waste, and hazardous waste. The collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of solid waste have become a headache for managers in almost all countries in the world, particularly in developing economies such as Vietnam. In Vietnam, sustainable solid waste management is one of the 7 priority programs of the “National strategy for environmental protection until 2010 and vision toward 2020” and one of the priority contents of the development policy of Agenda 21 - Vietnam strategic orientation for sustainable development. With the aim of evaluating solid waste-related issues in Vietnam in recent years, development trends and challenges, proposing solutions and recommendations to resolve such issues in the years to come, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment has chosen“Solid waste” as the topic for the National State of Environment Report 2011.

Resources, guides and templates

2013 | Metropolitan Waste Management Group

MWMG encourages the adoption of best practice approaches to waste management and resource recovery. Click on the links below to access a range resources including templates and best practice guidelines. More details...

Flaming landfill: changing waste disposal in the Stans

2013 | isonomia

In a previous Isonomia piece we explored some of the problems of municipal solid waste collection in the five former Soviet republics of Central Asia known collectively as the ‘Stans’: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. In this second piece we turn our attention to what happens once this waste has been collected, examining the pitfalls encountered in attempts to improve waste treatment and disposal infrastructure in these countries.   Informal infernos The main disposal method in the region is landfilling in locations which were strategically selected during the Soviet Era. A typical Central Asian landfill can be identified by its dry appearance and the presence of several smoke plumes; the latter a useful characteristic for identifying them on satellite images. The burning can be the accidental result of embers that are collected from roadside shashlik (barbequed meat skewers) stands typical in the region. However, landfill burning only occurs on those landfills where scavenging is condoned, which admittedly is the great majority of them. We use the term “scavenging” without derogatory intent, in preferences to alternatives such as “informal recycler” or “waste picker”. Though more politically correct, they are either technically inaccurate (since recycling does not happen at the landfill) or seem inadequate (because they do not reflect the dire conditions in which the activities in question take place).   Kokshetau landfill (Northern Kazakhstan): Fresh waste delivery (and some sorted cardboard) on the left and “thermally pre-treated waste” awaiting subsequent metal recovery on the right.   Although embers may be the true cause of some fires, more often than not they are started intentionally by scavengers as a kind of “informal thermal treatment” applied for better access to various kinds of scrap metal. Setting freshly delivered waste loads on fire is a standard practice in the region, applied to entire loads as well as pre-sorted fractions. Stopping this practice – which requires nothing more than a committed site operator – would vastly improve health conditions for all those working and living on or near the landfill – and generally, these two groups overlap substantially.   Nomadic landfills When upgrading a dis­posal site is proposed, a common issue is the attitude of some local decision makers who want to ‘move on’ from the current landfill and find a new location. Generally, this understandable desire stems from being confronted with complaints mainly about smoke and poor visual aesthetics. However, moving the landfill does not solve the essence of the problem, which comes down to management techniques and commitment levels. The poor operation of the landfills is not a story from which the Stans emerge with too much credit. Nevertheless, the existing landfill sites are generally logically located, within a reasonable distance from the city centre, and while the way they are managed may cause some problems for those living nearby, properly run they would pose mini­mal threat to the environment. Finding a better location is unlikely as each city has expanded since the Soviets centralised disposal in the late 1970s and 80s. Apart from increasing transportation costs, moving to a new landfill requires two major investments: building the new landfill and cleaning up the existing one. From an urban planning point of view, a move also results in two areas being devalued. The less nomadic approach – extending the existing site with up-to-date landfill standards and an integrated clean-up – requires much less monetary input, by a ballpark factor of 1.5, leaving more resources to invest elsewhere, such as improvements to the collection system. It is usually the “harder sell” but must not be overlooked in a landfill improvement project’s start-up phase.   That sinking feeling Landfill projects are not the only disposal schemes where ambition runs ahead of the capability of the creaking systems in the Stans to operate them successfully. Such schemes have a high risk of generating sunken investments, damaging donor reputations, and adding costs for beneficiaries. Companies that struggle with institutional capacity focus mainly on the trans­portation of waste and not on disposal methods. It is unlikely they will be able to maintain operation of a technically advanced system in an environmentally safe way. Incinerators for stray dogs are an example of prevalent constituents of procurement lists that are almost guaranteed to turn into such losses. However, the underlying reason for becoming a sunken investment is much more fundamental and human: people tend to solve problems only after they start to suffer from them. Currently, nobody suffers from the dead dogs that are deposited at the landfill (where they can be safely buried) and it is therefore likely the beneficiaries will end up preferring to save on the fuel it takes to operate such an incinerator. Ironically, the incinerator itself ends up as a dead dog.   Contain yourself: to some eyes, a disposal container in Khujand, North Tajikistan can look like a dwelling.   Even something as simple as a move to containerise more waste can run up against local issues in countries so beset with poverty. Large containers have multiple possible uses, and in the picture above the local citizen, to the left in the photo, has confused the disposal container with a private house. Another example of unrealistic expectations is the dream of becoming rich from waste; a common misconception on the part of both donors and beneficiaries, over optimism about the financial rewards of material recovery have made recycling plants a reoccurring item on solid waste management projects’ shopping lists. In Tajikistan, energy saving light bulbs are widely used in even the poorest households. Recently there has been a local wish for the construction of a recycling plant solely dedicated to this specific (moreover hazardous and virtually unrecyclable) perceived problem solver. A recycling plant is often thought of as a modern Western solution that will bring prosperity and popularity when in reality the payback period will exceed the facility’s expected lifespan. The clash between the ambitions of donors and funders and the realities of waste management in the Stans is perhaps best exemplified by the donors’ regular insistence that clients must implement an Environmental Manage­­ment System (such as ISO 14001). Many donors rightfully expect their investment projects to meet high environmental standards, but fail to see that in the Stans there is an inverse relationship between the emphasis on meeting ‘Western’ environmental standards and the affordability to beneficiaries of implementing them. Though under­standable, compliance with ISO 14001 it is much too ambitious for most projects in the Stans, and the attempt to meet funders’ requirements wastes valuable time and effort. Improvement in waste management in the Stans is possible, and there are projects that deliver real benefits. However, both the projects and the standards to which they are held need to be appropriate to their environment and recognise the cultural and social setting in which they are being implemented. The application of less technically ambitious projects and softer standards would create more sustainable solutions at a faster rate, while recognising that it is impossible to leapfrog certain stages of development.   Natasha Sim and Martin Steiner

Reforming waste dump in Bishkek

2013 | Central European University

According to some estimates more than 15 million people worldwide depend on retrieving recyclable materials from the waste stream. Recent works on waste pickers have largely been produced by the 'consultant view' in development sphere. These works mainly argue (i) that waste pickers are poor and vulnerable (ii) that empowerment through formalization and normalization will lead to improved income and recognition (iii) that support to and integration of manual waste picking is means towards sustainable development in developing countries.

Review of past research and proposed action plan for landfill gas-to-energy applications in India

2013 | Sage

Open dumps employed for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) are generally referred to as landfills and have been traditionally used as the ultimate disposal method in India. The deposition of MSW in open dumps eventually leads to uncontrolled emission of landfill gas (LFG). This article reviews the MSW disposal practices and LFG emissions from landfills in India during the period 1994 to 2011. The worldwide trend of feasibility of LFG to energy recovery projects and recent studies in India indicate a changed perception of landfills as a source of energy. However, facilitating the implementation of LFG to energy involves a number of challenges in terms of technology, developing a standardized framework and availability of financial incentives. The legislative framework for promotion of LFG to energy projects in India has been reviewed and a comprehensive strategy and action plan for gainful LFG recovery is suggested. It is concluded that the market for LFG to energy projects is not mature in India. There are no on-ground case studies to demonstrate the feasibility of LFG to energy applications. Future research therefore should aim at LFG emission modeling studies at regional level and based on the results, pilot studies may be conducted for the potential sites in the country to establish LFG to energy recovery potential from these landfills.

Municipal waste management in the Netherlands

2013 | EEA

Highlights Recycling is the most preferred option for MSW management in the Netherlands. Already lying at 45 \% in 2001, recycling of MSW in the Netherlands reached the 50 \% recycling target given in the Waste Framework Directive, by 2009, eleven years ahead of the deadline;  A landfill ban covering 35 waste categories was already introduced in 1995; A landfill tax was introduced in 1995 as well, considerably reducing the amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfilled. In 2002, there was a steep increase of the tax level which kept increasing marginally the following years. Finally a sharp increase in 2010 made the landfill tax in the Netherlands the highest in Europe. By 2012, the tax was repealed as the low level of landfilling rendered the tax administratively bothersome; The first National Waste Management Plan set the framework of future waste management in the Netherlands and introduced the control of waste policies under a national perspective; The second National Waste Management Plan introduced a target to increase the recycling of household waste to 60 \% by 2015.

Economic Valuation of Integrated Solid Waste Management in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

2012 | Journal of Applied Sciences

Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a critical issue in Kota Bharu, a compacted city in east coast of West Malaysia. The amalgamation of dwindling financial resources and population growth results in incompetency in controlling and handling excessive solid waste generation, giving rise to adverse effects on environment and public health. This study was attempted to evaluate acceptance of the communities towards introducing Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) to alleviate the drawbacks of current solid waste management. Single-bounded Dichotomous Contingent Valuation Method (DC-CVM) was conducted to estimate communities’ Willingness to Pay (WTP). Primary data obtained through personal interview were analyzed using a logit model. The model estimation shows age, income and occupation are significantly influential in determining the communities’ willingness to pay. The monetary figure derived from the model shows the willingness to pay value of RM 13.91 (USD 4.40) per month. The consciousness of environmental degradation due to current solid waste management drives the communities to yearn for improvement initiatives. The study suggests that intervention by authority to introduce integrated solid waste management is required.

Industry Waste Management Plan Guidelines

2011 | Provincial Government of Western Cape

The purpose of this guideline is to provide industry with assistance and guidance with respect to the development of their industry in WMPs using the Industry Waste Management Plan Guideline. Furthermore, the assessment checklist, that will be used by the DEA&DP for evaluation of the submitted Industry WMPs, is also attached for self-assessment by industry.

Country Analysis Paper (BHUTAN)

2011 | UNCRD

Bhutan is a small landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas bordered by China in the North and India on the other 3 sides. Bhutan has a population of 695,822 in the year 20101 with total land area of 38,394 square.  The landscape is characterized by rugged terrain and steep mountain valleys ranging from 150meters in the sub- tropical valleys in the southern foothills, through temperate zone to heights exceeding 7000 meters in the alpine regions of the mountains.

Toward Sustainable Municipal Organic Waste Management in South Asia

2011 | ADB

Description "This report provides a clear and up-to-date guide for harnessing the huge resource recovery potential of organic waste in the region, and is a practical reference for any policy maker or practitioner working to improve the livability of cities." — Dr. Masaru Tanaka, President, Society of Solid Waste Management Experts in Asia and Pacific Islands The massive scale of urbanization in South Asia is expected to create a surge in demand for solid waste services. An enormous opportunity exists to improve upon the “business-as-usual” approach of uncollected waste and open dumping witnessed throughout the region and to convert this waste into value-added resources, such as alternative fuels and agricultural fertilizers. As approximately 70\% of the region’s municipal waste stream is currently organic (biodegradable) waste, methods such as composting, anaerobic digestion, and conversion to refuse-derived fuels offer a more sustainable course of action. This report aims to align South Asian cities with ADB‘s Strategy 2020 for environmentally sustainable growth and livable cities. It provides a useful management resource, identifying key issues and pointing policy makers, city managers, and practitioners to improved waste treatment technologies. Contents Foreword Preface Executive Summary Sector Overview: Municipal Organic Waste Management Tool Kit for Municipalities and Operators Enabling Framework for Scaling Up Operations The Way Forward Appendixes

Solid waste management in Mekong Delta

2011 | Journal of Vietnamese Environment

Integrated Solid Waste Management (MSW) in Vietnam has been increasing quickly and became one of the most considered environmental problems in Mekong Delta (MD) region covering 13 provinces and municipalities in the south of Vietnam. With a considerably large amount of MSW, the region produces about 5\% of the total amount of MSW of the country. The collection rate of solid waste is about quite high (65 - 72\%) in the cities and rather low (about 40 - 55\%) in the rural areas, with a high content in organic matter (about 60 - 85\%). The climate of MD can be characterized as tropical and monsoonal with a high rate of humidity and a strong impact of flooding. Like other regions too, the MSW collection and treatment system is still underdeveloped and rudimentary, with disposal sites being the sole dumping method of the unsorted MSW remaining untreated by any me-chanical and biological pre-treatment steps. Within this paper, the current treatment, management and operation of MSW systems are introduced, as well as the identification of advantages and dis-advantages, environmental impacts, potential risks of the MSW system within the impact of global climate change. The situation of MSW treatment and management is correlated with the climate change impact and the integrated solid waste management is introduced as a new approach for adapting the environmental protection awareness by considering the climate change for the long-term sustainable development orientation

Studying Municipal Solid Waste generation and Composition in the Urban areas of Bhutan

2010 |

Bhutan is a small landlocked country located in the eastern Himalaya between Tibet-China (in the North) and India (in the east, south and west). Its total population in 2005 was 672,425 (PHCB, 2006) and it has a total area of 38,394 km2 (MoA 2004). Like any other developing country, Bhutan too is facing the challenges of rapid urbanisation with more than 30\% of the country’s population living in the urban areas which is expected to increase in the next few decades. Although the national annual population growth rate in Bhutan is 1.28\% (MoWHS 2007, PHCB, 2006), its average urban population growth rate has been reported to be 7.3\% annually with the western region, including Thimphu, experiencing maximum growth rate of about 11\% (MoWHS 2007). Thimphu is the capital city of Bhutan with a total population of 79,185 (PHCB, 2006) in 2005 which is more than 40\% of the entire urban population in Bhutan.

Stakeholders' Issue of Concern Bahir Dar City - ISWM Plan

2010 | UNEP

Waste generators, service providers, actors in recycling & resource generation, regulator/government, and community are taken as the stakeholders in this study. Financial, social, technical, and environmental aspects are studied as per segregation at source, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal, and recycling and resource generation.

Assessment of the Solid Waste Management System of Bahir Dar Town And the Gaps identified for the Development of an ISWM Plan

2010 | UNEP

Identified gaps include the following: Even if there is a polluter-pay-principle (policy) in the country, was not practiced or implemented in the city. There is no set directives or guidelines how to pay fees equivalent to the service provided Awareness of the public towards solid waste management is at very low level Financial sources are not identified

Solid Waste Characterization and Quantification of Bahir Dar City for the Development of an ISWM plan

2010 | UNEP

Construction and demolition (C&D) waste is not a monolithic waste stream, but it is a family of waste streams. Therefore, it is important to define the types of materials, which could be available in C&D waste. The most common materials could be paper/cardboard, garden/vegetation, wood/timber, carpets, other textiles, rubber, glass, plastics, metals, hazardous wastes, ceramics, soil/rubble <150mm, cobbles/boulders, clean soil, concrete, plasterboard, bricks, asphalt/bitumen, cement sheet, insulation and others. Based on the local information and pilot surveys, a list of materials are prepared as we took 9 samples from 9 kebeles and there are 90 construction sites in the city. After we took the samples and the number of days the construction needed to be finished we get the annual value of the waste generated in the site.


2010 | UNEP

The training workshop on Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) based on Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle (3R) approach was carried out from 22nd to 24th February 2010 at Axum Hotel, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The training was organized by Forum for Environment (FfE) in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Bahir Dar’s Forum for Environment. The 3-day training was designed to train experts and practitioners who have basic knowledge and roles in the solid waste management at federal and regional levels. The training contents were based on the recently published UNEP’s ISWM guidelines. The training guided the participants on ISWM processes, and it is specifically focused on • characterization and quantification of solid waste, • assessment of the current waste management system and gap therein • target Setting for ISWM and Identification of Stakeholders’ Issues of Concern, and • Development of ISWM Plan and case studies.

First Training Workshop on Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) based on 3R

2010 | UNEP

The training workshop on Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) on Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle (3R) approach was carried out in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia from 27th to 28th February 2010. The training is one activity of the Development of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan for Bahir Dar project. The 2-days training was designed to train the Local Technical Team (LTT); so that the trainees would be able to conduct the ISWM situation analysis and inventory of solid waste at Bahir Dar. The trainees would also be able to provide guidance for other partakers on the survey of solid waste survey based on UNEP's ISWM guidance. The training guided the participants on ISWM survey process, especially on the characterization and quantification of solid waste.

Solid Waste Management in Nairobi: A Situation Analysis

2010 | University of Cape Town

The situational background to Solid Waste Management in Nairobi City is drawn and analysed at from a basic systems perspective to allow for the development of more holistic interventions to the problems and challenges highlighted in the ISWM planning process to this point. The data utilised to this end is sourced from a diversity of sources including; previous research work on solid waste management in Nairobi and other areas, preliminary zone surveys and waste characterisation audits carried out in Nairobi in 2009, UNEP/CCN ISWM Training and Stakeholder Workshops held in Nairobi through 2009, and public and private reports. It is hoped that from this contextual lens, the specific ISWM actions proposed and summarised in the main ISWM Draft Plan document can be better understood and seen to follow from a natural sequence and thread of considerations.

PPP-ISWM Initiative in Bhutan

2010 | UNDP

Urbanization in Bhutan has taken place at a rapid pace over the last 10 years or so. By 2005, the proportion of Bhutanese urban population had grown to 31 percent. It is projected that by 2020 half of the Bhutanese population will be living in urban areas.  Burgeoning urban population has created several environmental problems such as air and water pollution, water shortage, increase of municipal waste volumes and types, congestion of traffic and buildings, and land degradation. The Thimphu Municipality has not yet developed any standard and effective strategy for waste management at the household and community levels.

Household solid waste generation and composition in different family size and socio-economic groups: A case study

2010 | Elsevier

The household waste (HW) constitutes an important fraction in municipal solid waste (MSW). The composition of HW is an important factor in design an effective solid waste management plan for city. The aim of study was to estimate the quantity and quality of HW in terms of socio-economic groups and family size in the Dehradun city, India. A total of 144 households were selected from 11 major blocks of the city and HW quantification and characterization was analyzed for different blocks/colonies. The HW generation rates in the city ranged from 24.5–4147.1 g/day. The average HW quantity in households was estimated: 267.17 g/day (SD = 38.13, n = 144). The food/kitchen waste was the major constituent (≥ 80\% of total weight) of HW in city followed by polythene and plastic (≈7\%), paper (≈6\%), cardboard (≈2\%) glass/ceramic scrap (≈1\%) and other miscellaneous (e.g. cloths, silt, dirt, rubber; all ≈4\%). The HW quantity and composition varied significantly among different socio-economic groups in the city. The maximum HW generation rate was in higher- followed by middle- and lower-income group. The HW generation showed positive correlation with family size (rxy = 0.348, p&lt; 0.01). On the basis of obtained data sets, it is concluded that HW can be a potential resource for energy and manure production if proper waste management system is designed for the city.

Household solid waste generation and characteristic in a Mekong Delta city, Vietnam

2010 | Elsevier

This study was undertaken to evaluate the quantity and composition of household solid waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling in Can Tho city, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Two-stage survey of 100 households was conducted for dry season and rainy season in 2009. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into 10 physical categories and 83 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 285.28 g per capita per day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for 80.02\% and 11.73\%. The authors also analyzed the relations between some socioeconomic factors and household solid waste generation rates by physical categories and subcategories. The household solid waste generation rate per capita per day was positively correlated with the population density and urbanization level, although it was negatively correlated with the household size. The authors also developed mathematical models of correlations between the waste generation rates of main physical categories and relevant factors, such as household size and household income. The models were proposed by linear models with three variables to predict household solid waste generation of total waste, food waste, and plastic waste. It was shown that these correlations were weak and a relationship among variables existed. Comparisons of waste generation by physical compositions associated with different factors, such as seasonal and daily variation were conducted. Results presented that the significant average differences were found by the different seasons and by the different days in a week; although these correlations were weak. The greenhouse gas baseline emission was also calculated as 292.25 g (CO2 eq.) per capita per day from biodegradable components.

Promoting People Participation in Solid Waste Management in Myanmar

2010 | Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 4: 209-222

The purpose of this study was to explore implementation strategies for fostering people’s participation in solid waste management in Myanmar. To achieve this, an action research employing mixed methods was conducted in Bagan City, within the twenty months period. Household attitudes and behavior was collected through questionnaire surveys. In-depth interview, group discussion, organizational and community meetings and observation were conducted to address problem situations, explore strategies to fix the problems and assess the outcomes. The results of the study showed that the current participatory approach, which mainly focuses on raising awareness or imparting environmental education, is not adequate to maximize the people’s participation in Myanmar due to the persistence of institutional and social constraints. This study discovered that promoting people’s participation in its ultimate form is more effective when (1) the municipality develops the knowledge and skills to fulfill the new role of service partner; (2) the people understand (rather than merely being aware of the problems) the harmful effects of their behavior and realize their roles and responsibilities; (3) the people are empowered with knowledge and skill and (4) motivation and interaction exist among all parties.

UNEP Year Book 2009

2009 | UNEP

The UNEP Year Book 2009 presents work in progress on the scientific understanding of global environmental change, as well as issues on the horizon. It aims to raise awareness of interlinkages that could accelerate the rate of environmental change and threaten human and ecosystem health. The 2009 Year Book examines new science and developments in six chapters.It discusses the cumulative effects expected from the degradation of ecosystems, releases of substances harmful to ecosystems and human health, the consequences of climate change, continuing human and economic losses resulting from disasters and conflicts, and the overexploitation of resources. It calls for a greater sense of urgency with respect to responsible governance in the face of approaching critical thresholds and tipping points.

Development of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan for the City of Nairobi, Kenya

2009 |

This document provides a summary of the outputs of the training session on  target setting and stakeholder engagement which was held as part of the project  developing an integrated solid waste management plan for the city of Nairobi.  Three key outputs from the workshop are: a set of high level objectives which represent the motivation for  developing the plan; a list of stakeholder issues which were established through a role playing exercise by the participants; and a set of preliminary targets for the ISWMP. It is suggested that the high level objectives should be further refined by the NTT  (to remove duplication and ambiguity), be presented to stakeholders, and used  to help shape the ISWMP. 

An Assessment of the Existing Policies and Legislative Framework for the Management of Solid Waste: The case of Nairobi, Kenya

2009 | UNEP

Solid waste management in Nairobi City has for over the years been one of the sources of pollution for the City’s environment. The City’s solid waste management system is faced with a number of challenges. One of these challenges is the policy problems and legislative framework aimed at governing the management of the solid waste cycle. It was on this foundation that this exercise was designed to collect and collate the existing policies and legislative framework for the management of solid waste relevant to the City of Nairobi. In so doing, two types of data were collected; primary and secondary. The collection of such data involved the use of different instruments as well as the employment of various sampling methods. The analysis of the collected data reveals that the solid waste management system is riddled with a number of challenges such as non-compliance with the laid down provisions, lack of incentives for best practices in solid waste management, conflicting roles played by some institutions, low public awareness on the Do's and the Don'ts in the solid waste management sector, inadequate infrastructure for solid waste management among others.

Waste Quantification and Characterization, Madhyapur Thimi Municipality (2009)

2009 | UNEP

Madhyapur Thimi Municipality (MTM) is one of the highest urbanizing towns. It is located in the district of Bhaktapur in Bagmati Zone, Central Development Region of Nepal. Madhyapur Thimi got its municipality status only in 1996 (B.S. 2053). Five Village Development Committees namely Bode, Chapacho, Balkumari, Dibyaswori and Nagadesh prior to this declaration were amalgamated to form this municipality.

Converting Waste Plastics into a Resource: Compendium of Technologies

2009 | UNEP

The world's annual consumption of plastic materials has increased from around 5 million tonnes in the 1950s to nearly 100 million tonnes; thus, 20 times more plastic is produced today than 50 years ago. Plastic waste recycling is one of the most established recycling activities in economically developed countries. In most of the situations, recycling of waste plastics is becoming viable in developing countries as well, as it generates resources and provides jobs. The recycling of waste plastics also has a great potential for resource conservation and GHG emissions reduction, such as producing diesel fuel from plastic waste. As raw materials, wastes plastics have attractive potentials for large-scale industries and community-level enterprises. For efficient and effective conversion of waste plastics into a resource, appropriate selection of technologies is one of the vital pre-conditions. This compendium is compiled to assist in the selection process for those technologies. The geographical scope of the compendium is global. Thus, technologies listed range from highly sophisticated equipment from industrialized countries to simple technologies from the developing countries. Technologies listed in the Compendium are limited to the information which could be generated within available time and budget.

Converting Waste Plastics into a Resource: Assessment Guidelines

2009 | UNEP

It is important to put into context the waste plastics generation in relation with the overall solid waste generated. Quantification and characterization of the solid waste stream as a whole is recommended prior to focusing on waste plastics. Further, plastics to fuel conversion technologies may require the mixing of waste plastics with organic waste, including paper and wood, as additional feedstock; hence the quantification of these streams of waste will also be useful to be known. These guidelines for waste plastics could be used as stand alone set of guidelines, if the target is to characterize and quantify only waste plastics, or could be used as an additional set of guidelines to narrow down the characterization and quantification of solid waste with reference to waste plastics.

Converting Waste agriCulturalBiomass into a resource : Compendium of Technologiescbil

2009 | unep

Globally, 140 billion metric tons of biomass1 is generated every year from agriculture. This volume of biomass can be converted to an enormous amount of energy and raw materials. Equivalent to approximately 50 billion tons of oil2, agricultural biomass waste converted to energy can substantially displace fossil fuel, reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and provide renewable energy to some 1.6 billion people in developing countries, which still lack access to electricity3. As raw materials, biomass wastes have attractive potentials for large-scale industries and community-level enterprises. Biomass takes the form of residual stalks, straw, leaves, roots, husk, nut or seed shells, waste wood and animal husbandry waste. Widely available, renewable, and virtually free, waste biomass is an important resource. With the global campaign to combat climate change, countries are now looking for alternative sources of energy to minimize green house gas (GHG) emissions. Aside from being carbon neutral, the use of biomass for energy reduces dependency on the consumption of fossil fuel; hence, contributing to energy security and climate change mitigation.

Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan

2009 | UNEP

Thes books are  in the series of training manuals on developing Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) plan. This manual aims to build the capacity of practitioners and policy makers in waste characterization and quantification with projections for future for all the waste generating sectors viz.: residential, commercial, construction and demolition, healthcare and industrial sectors.  

Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

2009 | Elsevier

Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today’s rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term ‘zero emission systems’. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today’s technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input–output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.


2009 | Vietnam Environment Administration

CICP Working Paper, NO. 27 , Solid Waste Management in Cambodia

2009 | Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace

Solid waste management consists of two sectors: the formal operation and the informal scavenging activities. Because scavenging contributes to solid waste management economically and environmentally and also serves as an occupation for some of the most impoverished in the city, recently it has become the focus of scholarly deliberation. A notion of integrating this informal sector of SWM into the formal one is proposed by different scholars. Though they appear to differ in terms of approaches and arguments, their proposed policies are place-based. This paper examines the situations of solid waste management, both the formal and the informal, in Phnom Penh city, and discusses the feasibility of integrating the informal scavenging into the formal management of solid waste. It raises questions about the possible unintended consequences when informal scavenging is integrated through such place-based approach. 

Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

2009 | Elsevier

Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input–output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

Solid waste management in Nepal

2008 | WaterAid

This paper reflects the existing management systems practiced in various areas of Nepal in managing solid waste and contains initiatives of municipalities; national and local NGOs/CBOs; public and private entities. This paper helps to transfer the lessons and existing practices regarding soild waste managment and encourages urban, peri urban and emerging towns for similar initiatives in urban sanitation.

Waste Quantification and Characterization, Phnom Penh (2008)

2008 | UNEP

Phnom Penh Municipality (PPM) is the capital city of the Royal Kingdom of Cambodia with a total land area of 376.95 Km2. It is equal to 0.20\% of the total land area of the country. Administratively, PPM is divided into 7 districts (up to 2008) but now one more district has been determined, 76 communes, 689 villages and 4,320 groups. The population of the city is approximately 1,080,519 consisting of 188,769 households out of which 43\% live in urban area and 57\% in rural area. Population growth in the city is 3.92\%. Double-digit economic growth rates in recent years have triggered an economic boom in Cambodia, with new hotels, restaurants, and residential buildings springing up around the PPM. Due to improved living standards, globalization, international trade, and tourism, the consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has rapidly increased in the urban centers in the country. Since Cambodia does not have manufacturing base for electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), it is importing both brand new and second hand EEE to cater to existing demand. This is leading to generation of E-waste and its management as a major issue in cities/ urban centers in Cambodia. According to the CEA survey report of E-waste in Cambodia, it was found that there exists some environmental and human health concerns though the utilization of second hand EEE/ Used EEE. Therefore, there is a need to further consider strengthening, monitoring and managing imported EEE with reasonable and useable conditions.

Soils and waste management: A challenge to climate change

2008 | Elsevier

Currently the potential threat of climate change represents one of the main environmental concerns worldwide. Consequently, most of the developed countries are implementing measures at different levels in order to tackle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Amongst the measures agreed internationally and encapsulated within the Kyoto Protocol, the reduction of GHG emissions associated with agriculture and organic waste management, and the enhancement of the C sink capacity of agricultural soils are seen to be of particular importance.

Stakeholders' consultation workshops for IWM plan Pune

2007 | UNEP

Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) and International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) are in the process of formulating the Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) Plan for Pune. The Plan for Pune has been developed using the Strategic Planning Process. This Report for the ISWM project for Pune city aims to present the summary of the Stakeholders' consultative workshops held to facilitate the planning process.

Schemes proposed under Strategic Action Plan for ISWM plan Pune Vol 2

2007 | UNEP

The Schemes for Strategic Action Plan were generated to support the goals and objectives. In order to categorise the Schemes at operational level, five themes were identified based on the “functional nature”. These themes include, Assessment and Development 3R Initiatives Infrastructure Development Awareness and Promotion Capacity Building and Partnerships.

Solid waste management in Abuja, Nigeria

2007 | Elsevier

The new city of Abuja provided an opportunity to avoid some of the environmental problems associated with other major cities in Africa. The current status of solid waste management in Abuja has been reviewed and recommendations for improvements are made. The existing solid waste management system is affected by unfavourable economic, institutional, legislative, technical and operational constraints. A reliable waste collection service is needed and waste collection vehicles need to be appropriate to local conditions. More vehicles are required to cope with increasing waste generation. Wastes need to be sorted at source as much as possible, to reduce the amount requiring disposal. Co-operation among communities, the informal sector, the formal waste collectors and the authorities is necessary if recycling rates are to increase. Markets for recycled materials need to be encouraged. Despite recent improvements in the operation of the existing dumpsite, a properly sited engineered landfill should be constructed with operation contracted to the private sector. Wastes dumped along roads, underneath bridges, in culverts and in drainage channels need to be cleared. Small-scale waste composting plants could promote employment, income generation and poverty alleviation. Enforcement of waste management legislation and a proper policy and planning framework for waste management are required. Unauthorized use of land must be controlled by enforcing relevant clauses in development guidelines. Accurate population data is necessary so that waste management systems and infrastructure can be properly planned. Funding and affordability remain major constraints and challenges.

Waste Quantification and Characterisation, Pune (2006)

2006 | unep

Pune is the second largest city in Maharashtra and 8th in country. As per the Census 2001 the population of the city is 2.7 million. The reported average population density as per the 2001 census was 11500 persons per Sq. Km. However the city’s urban body, Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC), estimated the population to have grown to about 3 million in the year 2006, with the population density of 13200 persons per Sq. Km. This effectively means a phenomenal increase of 11\% in terms of population in 5 years. The growth in the city is peripheral. The growth rate in the core part of the city is about 2 – 2.5\% per year and the annual growth rate in peripheral wards is about 4.4\%.1 The driving force for growth is mainly the development of IT industry as well as the economic boom in the automobile sector which forms a major portion of the industries in and around Pune.

Baseline Assessment of Waste Management in Maseru City

2006 | Envirotech Services (Pty) Ltd in collaboration with Lombard and Associates

This report contains the findings of a study conducted by Consultants from Envirotech Services (Lesotho) in collaboration with Lombard and Associates (South Africa) on behalf of the National Environment Secretariat. The study has been undertaken and developed on the basis of local information as well as the local conditions, the study also made reference to similar studies conducted in other African countries.

Waste Quantification and Characterization, Wuxi New District (2006)

2006 | UNEP

Wuxi city, located close to the metropolis of Shanghai (160 km west of Shanghai) has developed a new industrial township called the Wuxi New District (WND). WND is one of top ten national level development zones. As per 2006, it covered an area of 200km2, housed more than 2,000 enterprises and had a population of 250,000 including 140,000 industrial workers. The total output of WND was more than RMB 166 billion. Since its foundation in 1992, WND has evolved to be a major industrial park in the Yangtze River Delta. WND has been a strong showcase for the rapid industrial development that the People's Republic of China has achieved in the last few decades. A broad range of industries has been set up in the WND, and its economic growth has spurred the entire region, including the Microelectronic, precision machinery and auto-parts sectors. Related service/supporting industry sectors are also emerging rapidly in WND. WND is owned and managed by the New District Administrative Committee of Wuxi People’s Municipal Government, second largest city in Jiangsu Province of the People's Republic of China.

Waste Quantification and Characterization, Wuxi Ne

2006 | UNEP

Wuxi city, located close to the metropolis of Shanghai (160 km west of Shanghai) has developed a new industrial township called the Wuxi New District (WND). WND is one of top ten national level development zones. As per 2006, it covered an area of 200km2, housed more than 2,000 enterprises and had a population of 250,000 including 140,000 industrial workers. The total output of WND was more than RMB 166 billion.   Since its foundation in 1992, WND has evolved to be a major industrial park in the Yangtze River Delta. WND has been a strong showcase for the rapid industrial development that the People's Republic of China has achieved in the last few decades. A broad range of industries has been set up in the WND, and its economic growth has spurred the entire region, including the Microelectronic, precision machinery and auto-parts sectors. Related service/supporting industry sectors are also emerging rapidly in WND. WND is owned and managed by the New District Administrative Committee of Wuxi People’s Municipal Government, second largest city in Jiangsu Province of the People's Republic of China.

Household Waste Composting & MSW Recycling in Sri Lanka

2006 |

Sixty percent of around 2,900 tones/day MSW in Sri Lanka is collected in the Western Province while 43\% and 25\% in Colombo District and Colombo Municipal limits, respectively. Furthermore, though legal responsibility is with local authorities, no proper execution is observed in most cases.

Recovery and recycling practices in municipal solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria

2006 | Elsevier

The population of Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, increased seven times from 1950 to 1980 with a current population of over 10 million inhabitants. The majority of the city’s residents are poor. The residents make a heavy demand on resources and, at the same time, generate large quantities of solid waste. Approximately 4 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually in the city, including approximately 0.5 million of untreated industrial waste. This is approximately 1.1 kg/cap/day. EVorts by the various waste management agencies set up by the state government to keep its streets and neighborhoods clean have achieved only minimal success. This is because more than half of these wastes are left uncollected from the streets and the various locations due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of the waste management system. Whilst the benefits of proper solid waste management (SWM), such as increased revenues for municipal bodies, higher productivity rate, improved sanitation standards and better health conditions, cannot be overemphasized, it is important that there is a reduction in the quantity of recoverable materials in residential and commercial waste streams to minimize the problem of MSW disposal. This paper examines the status of recovery and recycling in current waste management practice in Lagos, Nigeria. Existing recovery and recycling patterns, recovery and recycling technologies, approaches to materials recycling, and the types of materials recovered from MSW are reviewed. Based on these, strategies for improving recovery and recycling practices in the management of MSW in Lagos, Nigeria are suggested.

Role of informal sector recycling in waste management in developing countries

2006 | Elsevier

Many thousands of people in developing country cities depend on recycling materials from waste for their livelihoods. With the focus of the Millennium Development Goals on poverty reduction, and of waste strategies on improving recycling rates, one of the major challenges in solid waste management in developing countries is how best to work with this informal sector to improve their livelihoods, working conditions and efficiency in recycling. The general characteristics of informal recycling are reviewed, highlighting both positive and negative aspects. Despite the health and social problems associated with informal recycling, it provides significant economic benefits that need to be retained. Experience shows that it can be highly counterproductive to establish new formal waste recycling systems without taking into account informal systems that already exist. The preferred option is to integrate the informal sector into waste management planning, building on their practices and experience, while working to improve efficiency and the living and working conditions of those involved. Issues associated with integrating informal recycling into the formal waste management sector are discussed.

Municipal Infrastructure Development Project


ABSTRACT The development objective of the Municipal Infrastructure Development Project for Tajikistan is to improve the availability, quality and efficiency of delivery of basic municipal services to the population of the towns which participate in the project. This Paper seeks the approval of the Country Director for a second level restructuring to extend the closing date of the project. The implementation performance and the outcome outlook of the project are satisfactory. The project is currently completing its third investment phase. Since the last supervision mission in November 2011, disbursements under the Municipal Infrastructure Development Project (MIDP) have continued to progress, with a current actual disbursed balance of USD 15.1 million, or approximately 91.5 percent of total funding. The procurement performance is satisfactory. The overall financial management arrangements are considered moderately satisfactory and acceptable to the Bank. The FY2010 audit report was found to be satisfactory to the Bank. The Project Management Unit (PMU) submits quarterly Financial Management Reports (FMRs) on time and they are satisfactory to the Bank. The achievement of the Project Development Objective (PDO) is highly likely given the fact that many of the outcome indicators have already been met. This will be the second extension of the project. In July 11, 2011 the project was restructured in first level which consisted of: (1) re-allocation of the grant proceeds; (2) trigger of a new safeguard policy on involuntary resettlement; and (3) extension of the closing date of the project from August 31, 2011 to February 28, 2012. Details on project...

Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study

2005 | Elsevier

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1\% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56\%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60\% of the urban population on only 5\% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored.

Improving the solid waste management in Phnom Penh city: a strategic approach

2005 | Elsevier

Though the solid waste management (SWM) system in Phnom Penh city in general has been upgraded since the waste collection service was franchised out to the private sector, the performance of the existing SWM system is still low. Unreliable and irregular collection service still exists. This means that there are shortcomings in the existing SWM system that need correction. This paper is an attempt to identify those shortcomings in order to find ways to improve the existing system. First, the present SWM system is reviewed. Then the system is evaluated to find constraints and shortfalls and finally some appropriate strategies are proposed that may help make SWM in the city more effective and efficient to meet environmentally sound objectives.

Solid Waste Management in Dharan Municipality

2004 | His Majesty's Government, Nepal

Dharan is a mid-sized municipality located in Sunsari distict, Koshi zone of the Eastern Development Region. It was established in 2017 BS. Dharan is one of the fastest growing cities in the nation and a major urban centre of eastern Nepal. Dharan lies on the southern slope of Mahabharat mountain range immediately north of the Charkoshe Jungle and the terai. The municipality is bordered by Pancha kanya VDC in the east, Bishnupaduka VDC in the west, Vedetar VDC and Panchkanya VDc in the north and Charkoshe Jhadi in the south. With the establishment of the B. P. Koirala Teaching Hospital, Dharan is becoming a centre for education and health facilities.

State of Waste Management in South East Asia

2002 | UNEP IETC

This report is a result of a small survey conducted in 2002 by UNEP IETC in cooperation with the ASEAN Working Group for Multilateral Environmental Agreements (AWGMEA). The survey was undertaken to prepare a background paper on waste management in the sub-region prior to the holding in Kuala Lumpur in October 2002 of an ASEAN High Level Consultation Meeting. The focus is to deliberate on a proposal to establish a regional framework for collaboration in sustainable integrated waste management. This is a joint publication of UNEP IETC and the ASEAN Secretariat. It is envisaged to be a reference for planning, programming and policy reviews on waste management in each member state of ASEAN. It is also planned to be updated every two years so that it can serve as a supplement to the GEO, a biennial publication of UNEP, on the specialized area of waste management. Pls visit complete report online.

Development of National Waste Management Strategies in Sri Lanka


The very first NSWMS was developed in 2000 in Sri Lanka by some non-government agency that was reviewed and revised in 2007 with the initiation and substantial contribution from the government. Covering a period of 10 years, it addresses two distinctive areas of waste management namely municipal solid waste and biomedical waste.

Report on Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) to be used in the implementation of ISWMP Maseru/Lesotho

| University of Cape Town

The purpose of this document is to identify and list appropriate Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) for all operational stages of the ISWMP of the City of Maseru, including source segregation, collection, transportation, sorting, treatment and disposal of different generated waste streams. This deliverable falls within Activity 4-A: Identification and Selection of ESTs, as stated in the Memorandum of Understanding concluded between the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the University of Cape Town (UCT) Environmental & Process Systems Engineering Research Group. Furthermore, a basic techno-economic analysis of the identified appropriate technologies has been carried out, whilst drawing basic specifications of equipment and technologies in order to facilitate procurement. Price ranges for technologies have been given where appropriate. The report on ESTs has been developed based on the structure of actions as given by the ISWMP; the purpose here is to create an interface for the synchronisation of proposed technology related activities with all strategic planning steps given by the ISWMP.

Weak Spot and Gap Analysis of the Baseline Assessment for the Development of an ISWM System in Maseru City

| University of Cape Town

An estimated total amount of 105,000 t/a of solid waste is generated in Maseru, stemming from the household, commercial, industrial, administrative, educational and medical sectors. Of these seven sectors, six have been covered by the baseline study in terms of figures. On the other hand the waste recovery and disposal side has only been dealt with in a qualitative way by the baseline study. No waste amounts have been recorded except for the recycling sector.

Municipal Solid Waste Generation and its Disposal Practices in Pakistan

| Dr Anwar Baig

Municipal Solid Waste Generation and its Disposal Practices in Pakistan:BY Dr. Muhammad Anwar BaigInstitute of Environmental Science & Engineering (IESE)National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST) Solid waste can be defined as material that no longer has any value to the person who is responsible for it, and is not intended to be discharged through a pipe. It is generated by domestic, commercial, industrial, healthcare, agricultural and mineral extraction activities and accumulates in streets and public places. The words "garbage", "trash", "refuse" and "rubbish" are used to refer to some forms of solid waste.

National Waste Management Plan, Maxico

| Law Firm News

With the formal presentation of Mexico’s National Program for the Prevention and Comprehen-sive Management of Waste, Felipe Calderón’s Administration has ÿnally established and deÿned the Federal Government´s Policy in the matter. The Program basically establishes applicable policies and goals, including the adoption of the 3R’s policy and the application of the Shared Responsibility principle; thus, it should result in more interaction of the govern-ment with the private sector, encouraging management plans and agreements; and, as the corresponding instruments are developed, enforcement actions against certain speciÿc producers and importers may be increased. The Program is a step forward towards a real com-prehensive waste management scheme in Mexico; although, there are still many actions to be taken before it can be said that General Waste Law’s ambitious goals have been achieved.

Community-base 3R practices in Myanmar


Solid waste management is currently regarded as one of the most immediate environmental issues in Myanmar. Provision of waste collection services, management activities, and initiation of 3 Rs practices are extensively undertaken by responsible organizations independently. Therefore, policy statement may differ from one organization to another. However, a common essence of the policies is “ to develop systematic waste disposal and collection system in order for the city to be free of repulsive dump sites. These policies also called for cooperation and involvement of local authorities and communities in the waste management.

Present Scenario and Future Vision of Solid Waste Management in Nepal

| Ministry of Local Development

Present Scenario and Future Vision of Solid Waste Management in Nepal By Dr. Sumitra Amatya Solid Waste Management Technical Support Center (SWMTSC) Ministry of Local Development Shreemahal, Pulchowk, Lalitpur According to a survey done by Central Bureau of Statistics in 1996, Solid Waste Management is a number one environment problem in their cities (CBS,1997) that is followed by Water and Air pollution. Current Practices in SWM of Nepal depict that 58 municipalities generate about 500,000 tons per year; 41 newly added municipalities are unaccounted. Open dumping is still a common practice. Municipalities are often limited to street sweeping and dumping in the nearest river or vacant land. NGOs are involved in waste collection at the community level only. Awareness programs are gaining momentum in all the municipalities. Need to consider waste as a resource. Adopt integrated waste management system not just sweep & dump. Recycling can be significantly increased by home composting, biogas & central composting facility. Need to strengthen local governments. Clarity of roles & coordination with private parties Local government , Government and local communities. Solid Waste Management lessons (environment education) must include in the School Curriculum. Reduce green house emissions / Carbon reduction. Figure out the Carbon Credit Potential on SWM practices in Nepal. Need to reduce the effect of waste on health, in environment or aesthetics and recover resources from the waste. The waste management in Nepal should be based on integrated with the participation of PPPP.

Waste Management Initiatives and Challenges of Nepal

| Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology

Waste Management Initiatives and Challenges of Nepal Presented by Dr.Chhewang N. Lama(Sherpa ) Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, Nepal. Policy and legal initiatives in solid waste management encompass current approach and practices. Quantity and types of waste generation along with 3R approach in management system pave way for Public, Private Partnership approach addressing certain challenges.

Institutional Development of the Municipal Solid Waste Sector in Moroccor


Morocco: Municipal Solid Waste Sector Institutional Development of the Municipal Solid Waste Sector in Morocco Overview In 2008, the World Bank began working with the Government of Morocco on a sweeping program to help deliver better solid waste management services, helping around 80 municipalities improve their collection services and upgrade their landfills. This joint effort has also pioneered an innovative national carbon finance program, boosted the participation of the private sector, and provided training to 1,600 local managers, improving the reach and quality of solid waste collection services and contributing to the effort to mitigate climate change effects. Challenge Out of a total Moroccan population of 30 million, 18 million live in urban areas. Moroccan cities are characterized by high population densities and rapid growth. These cities suffer from several forms of environmental degradation, including the effects of poor management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The cost of the environmental degradation due to solid waste was estimated at 0.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2003 (among the highest in the Middle East, North Africa region). In 2008, Morocco produced about 5 million tons of MSW per year and it is expected to reach 6.2 million in 2020. Prior to the reform initiative, only 70 percent of urban MSW was collected and less than 10 percent of collected waste was being disposed of in an environmentally and socially acceptable manner. There were 300 uncontrolled dumpsites, and about 3,500 waste-pickers, of which 10 percent were children, were living on and around these open dumpsites. Major issues and challenges in the sector prior to formulation of the World Bank-supported reform program included: Poor sector policy, focused mainly on "cleanliness" with very limited attention to waste disposal and treatment ; Weak legal and institutional framework, which constrained effective strategic planning and governance ; Ad-hoc fiscal transfers to municipalities and uncertain financial sustainability ; Poor cost effectiveness of public-private partnerships, mainly due to limited competition, lack of transparency, and poor accountability ; and Huge impacts on quality of life, public health, environment, and social and economic development.   Approach The World Bank has been supporting Morocco's efforts to improve economic, environmental, and social performance of MSW, building on a solid engagement with the Government over the past five years. World Bank support to the implementation of the sector reform has been anchored on an innovative and programmatic approach that has gone through successive stages. A first World Bank Development Policy Loan focused on establishing a national framework to implement a national policy and securing continued engagement of all concerned ministries and national agencies. The second loan focused more closely on the policy actions needed to reach the local level, where actual implementation of the MSW policy, as well as resulting outcomes, materialize. Results The program has supported about 80 Municipalities, representing more than 50\% of urban population in Morocco, to improve their collection services and upgrade their landfills. The share of properly disposed MSW increased from 10 percent to 30 percent. Government financial allowance to the sector increased by 80 percent between 2008 and 2011. Private sector now provides cleaning and garbage collection services to about 60 percent of the urban population compared to about 15 percent before the project. A multi-year training plan reached more than 1,600 local managers. An innovative carbon finance program at the national level is being designed to help local authorities mobilize additional financial resources, with potential revenues of approximately US$90 million over the next 10 years. In parallel, the program has promoted the early and systematic consideration of social concerns at all levels of the decision making chain for SWM modernization: Waste pickers inclusion initiatives are underway in Tangier, Casablanca Rabat and Agadir. Rabat waste pickers inclusion initiative is the most advanced one and it covers 130 pickers. Partners World Bank support to the MSW sector in Morocco has been implemented in close collaboration with other partners. Although there have been no co-financiers so far, the World Bank has worked very closely with other donors involved in MSW in Morocco, including the United Nations Development Programme, and Germany's GTZ and KfW, which have provided coordinated technical support. At the national level, the World Bank has worked closely with the Ministry of Economy and Finance, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Interior, and Fonds d'Equipment Communal, a public development bank providing financial support (loans) to Municipalities' infrastructure projects. Bank financing Through these two Development Policy Loans totaling US$271.3 million, the World Bank has established itself as a valued interlocutor in the MSW sector in Morocco. Close dialogue with concerned partners and stakeholders since the early stage of design and inclusive consultation with beneficiaries have been the cornerstones to ensure success of this program.

Solid Waste Management in Kathmandu City, Nepal

| Kathmandu Metropolitan City

Generation & Collection of KMC: Waste Generation is 0.3 kg/p/day making a total domestic waste gen. App. 246 ton/day and others: Commercial waste (12\%)app. 30 ton/day; Street Waste (12\%) app. 30 ton/day; Waste from VDC (12\%) 30 ton/day. Total Generation: 335 ton/day; Collection 306 ton/day; About 70\% waste are organic. Municipalities are completely responsible. Some new approaches are being tried out in KMC: Door-to-door collection, User fees, Source-separated collection, Composting, and Private sector participation. “Landfilling” on the banks of Bagmati has stopped since the operation of Sisdol Landfill Site from June 5 while Preparation of Action Plan 2004-2015 (CKV) is in progress.

Solid Waste Management in the city of Kathmandu, Nepal

| University of Kalmar

The rapid population growth and urbanization in developing countries as Nepal constitute a threat to the environment. The urbanisation result in more waste and concurrently the development result in new life patterns, standard of living and attitudes change the waste composition. New industries are erected that changes the waste composition to include more and more hazardous waste. Along with the development comes the problems with solid waste and the situation in Kathmandu is at the moment precarious. The environmental problem caused by improper solid waste management in the expanding cities is one of the most urgent improvement issues for the government of Nepal. The main objective of this study was to make a survey of the conflicts of the solid waste management in Kathmandu and to identify issues for further investigations. The work was focused on Gokarna landfill site and the dumping of solid waste at Balkhu, along Bagmati River. To investigate the current situation in Kathmandu field studies and visits were carried out both at Gokarna landfill site and the present dumping site along Bagmati River as well as interviews with people involved in the solid waste management in Kathmandu. The results of the survey showed that co-operation between the municipality, governmental institutions and the private sector that do not exist today are necessary to enable improvements of the solid waste management. Additionally environmental laws and regulations with proper enforcements are needed. It came clear that education of the people in environmental issues such as solid waste management is essential to increase the environmental awareness and improve the situation. To clear what threat the sites constituted to the surroundings the water quality and the waste compositions were investigated. The water quality analysis of water samples taken in Bagmati River upstream and downstream the dumping at Balkhu showed that the water was heavily polluted, though further investigations are needed to clear to what extent the dumping at Balkhu contributes to the pollution. Literature studies showed that the pollution of Bagmati River has increased during later years. A handpicking analysis was carried out on one tonne of waste for dumping at Balkhu showed that the organic fraction was as high as 67 \%. Proper waste separation in combination with a compost plant in Kathmandu would greatly reduce the volume of waste for landfilling. Laboratory studies showed that the waste contains metals as well as heavy metals that eventually will leak out to the surroundings. Since the site does not have any fundamental protective structure, the dumping at Balkhu is considered to constitute a serious environmental threat that can not continue. A model, developed by  municipality, Sweden, was used as a checklist and structural model for inventory and risk assessment of the terminated Gokarna landfill site in Kathmandu to investigate the possibilities of using the model in future environmental inventories and risk assessments of old landfills in developing countries. The model showed to be useful in developing countries since the so-called number of uncertainty enable carrying out the inventory and the risk assessment even though expertise, information, lab facilities etc. are insufficient in the country. Since the model is meant to be used with a minimum of resources it is interesting to use in a developing country such as Nepal. The way the model investigates which landfill/dump that causes the worst environmental impact it gives the possibility to use available resources where they are most needed. By experiences interviews and field visits appear to be the most useful and feasible methods of collecting informative data for the investigation. Results from the water quality investigation, field visits and interviews were used in the investigation, following the risk assessment model, to eventually classify Gokarna landfill site as 2 (B) i.e. further investigations are needed to clear if the site constitutes a concrete environmental conflict. By comparing different solutions for the terminated Gokarna landfill site it came clear that a proper closure with possibly cover and treatment is the most reasonable alternative.

Environmental GuidelinesonSolid Waste Management in Kingdom of Cambodia


Now with the economic development and increasing people the requirement using equipment for their every day living is increased too, these are the reasons of the environmental issue and because of the people through out their solid waste around the country (provinces and cities) that it is negatively effect to the public health and environment. By understanding of this issue, the Royal of Cambodian government has cared and put out some measures as: preparing regulations for ensuring proper solid waste management with environmental safety, capacity building of skill staffs, educating people to understand the negative effectiveness of waste that will happen to themselves, the proper way of waste disposal with environmental sanitation and encouraging the involved institutions and private companies to behave regulations. This environmental guideline has been gotten by trying very hard of Ministry of Environment and COMPED organization partner, this environmental guideline on Solid Waste Management in Royal Cambodia is fully detail that can be encouraged to behave the ready prepared regulations and it is an important base to help the involved institutions especially province-city authorities and private sectors to improve their Solid Waste Management which is facing the problems and make it better in the future.