E-waste is a popular, informal
2017 | Elsevier
Fruits and vegetables have the highest wastage rates at retail and consumer levels. These wastes have promising potential for being used as substrates in bioprocesses. However, an effective hydrolysis of carbohydrates that form these residues has to be developed before the biotransformation. In this work, vegetable wastes from supermarket (tomatoes, green peppers and potatoes) have been separately treated by acid, thermal and enzymatic hydrolysis processes in order to maximise the concentration of fermentable sugars in the final broth. For all substrates, thermal and enzymatic processes have shown to be the most effective. A new combined hydrolysis procedure including these both treatments was also assayed and the enzymatic step was successfully modelled. With this combined hydrolysis, the percentage of reducing sugars extracted was increased, in comparison with the amount extracted from non-hydrolysed samples, approximately by 30% in the case of tomato and green peeper wastes. For potato wastes this percentage increased from values lower than 1% to 77%. In addition, very low values of fermentation inhibitors were found in the final broth.
2012 | Elsevier
Importation of second hand of Electric and Electronic Equipment (EEE) into Kingdom of Cambodia will be generated E-waste because of low quality and short period time for using. E-waste generated and handle practiced by formal and informal sector, which is improper practice on storage, collection, transportation and discarding with municipal waste collect and after that disposed at dumping-site. Ministry of Environment (MoE) in role of responsible the prevention, protection as well as minimizing/reduction all activities that impact to human health and environment from all sources polluted is effort to develop project proposal to conduct research, consultation workshop, training workshop and dissemination to stakeholders related to E-waste generation and its impact to human health and environment.
2009 | Ministry of Environment, Kingdom of Cambodia
Inventory studies show that E-waste generation potential ranges from 6792 metric tons in 2008 to 22,443 metric tons in 2019. Further, the results of extensive field work highlighted that the E-waste trade value chain consists of stakeholders, who use twelve processes during E-waste management. These processes are carried out in an environmentally unsound manner, which need to be addressed both at national and city level. These findings are in line with CEA report, which stated that an action plan for the environmentally sound management of E-waste should be prepared and implemented in Cambodia. In this context, the following sections describe the identified needs, objectives, approach and methodology and capacity building effort to address these needs within municipal limits of PPM. Further, the format of the report describes the outcome of this effort.
2009 | Ministry of Environment, Cambodia
Phnom Penh Municipality (PPM) is the capital city of the Royal Kingdom of Cambodia with a total land area of 376.95 Km2. It is equal to 0.20% of the total land area of the country. Administratively, PPM is divided into 7 districts (up to 2008) but now one more district has been determined, 76 communes, 689 villages and 4,320 groups. The population of the city is approximately 1,080,519 consisting of 188,769 households out of which 43% live in urban area and 57% in rural area. Population growth in the city is 3.92%. Double-digit economic growth rates in recent years have triggered an economic boom in Cambodia, with new hotels, restaurants, and residential buildings springing up around the PPM. Due to improved living standards, globalization, international trade, and tourism, the consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has rapidly increased in the urban centers in the country.