Policy and Regulations

The Status of Marine Debris Policy in ASEAN
Click the capsules to view a detailed list of the relevant policies below.
Solid Waste Management
Extended Producer Responsibility
Single Use Plastic Ban
Marine Debris Collection
Marine Debris Discharge
Marine Debris Monitoring
Brunei Darussalam
Viet Nam


Code/Number Country Title Year Description Link
Viet Nam Decree No. 08/2022/ND-CP Detailing a Number of Articles of the Law on Environmental Protection 2022

The Decree provide detailed rules on recycling of discarded products and packaging materials under the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). The Decree sets out a list of regulated products and compulsory recycling rates, and provides for rules on the Environmental Protection Fund, producers’ obligations to formulate recycling plans, disclose product information, and report recycling performance.

Viet Nam National Strategy on Integrated Solid Waste Management to 2025, Vision to 2050 2018

It targets the use of 100% friendly plastic bags environment at commercial centers and supermarkets for living purposes replacement for non-degradable plastic bags.

Viet Nam National Strategy on Integrated Solid Waste Management by 2025, Vision to 2050 2018

The document presents Vietnam strategy on solid waste management.

Viet Nam Circular No. 02/2022/TT-BTNMT on Implementation Rules for a Number of Articles of Law on Environmental Protection 2022

This circular lists the industrial and hazardous wastes and different formats for reporting.

Viet Nam Decree No. 08/2022/ND-CP Detailing a Number of Articles of Law on Environmental Protection 2020 2022

The decree specifies detail for storage, handover, transportation, treatment, and other activities of municipal solid waste, general industrial solid waste and hazardous waste. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) further established the Circular No. 02/2022/TT-BTNMT on Implementation Rules for a Number of Articles of Law on Environmental Protection to lists industrial and hazardous wastes and formats to be used for management documents.

Lao PDR Decree on Plastic Recycling factory No. 0682, 2020 2020

The MOIC has issued a decree to regulate plastic waste processing plants to reduce the impact on workers and the environment. The guide has 14 articles covering plant setup, waste treatment, transportation, and import requirements. Key points include:

- EIA or IEE, certificates, and licenses are required for setup

- Storage of waste outside the plant is prohibited

- Treatment systems and wastewater must meet MOIC standards

- Imported plastic waste must be clean and at least 80% recyclable

- Plant location should be at least 100 meters from a community and 250 meters from a watercourse.

Lao PDR Industrial Waste Discharge Regulation. No. 180/MOIC, 1994 1994

This regulation aims to manage threats from the disposal of industrial waste or wastewater that can detrimentally impact water quality, health, and human life (Article 1). Any solid materials, including plastic bags, are prohibited from being disposed of into the environment and public water sources (Article 3 number 3.3). Additionally, industries treating their waste should follow the standard set by the regulation (Article 8).

Lao PDR Environmental Protection Law 2012 2012

The Environmental Protection Law sets regulations and measures for environmental management, control, preservation, and rehabilitation to mitigate pollution from human or natural causes. Operators must comply with regulations for the release, disposal, burning, burying, or demolishing of waste and toxic chemicals. It is prohibited to release wastewater or dispose of waste without treatment based on technical standards.

Lao PDR 9th Five - Year National Socio-Economic Development Plan (2021-2025) 2021

The 9th NSEDP (2021-2025) aims to promote green growth and climate action, including improving waste management through awareness, financing, and infrastructure development. The circular economy model will be implemented to reduce reliance on natural resources and mitigate environmental degradation, with a focus on waste reduction, recycling, and pollution control. Domestic and foreign investment in waste-related business activities will be encouraged to create jobs and decrease resource use.

Cambodia Phnom Penh Waste Management Strategy and Action Plan (2018-2035) 2023

This document presents strategy and action plan for Phnom Penh (Capital) to improvise the solid waste management in more sustainable way. 

Cambodia Environmental Guidelines on Solid Waste Management in Kingdom of Cambodia 2006

This environmental guideline encouraged the 3R in solid waste management. 

Cambodia Sub-Decree No. 168 on the management of plastic bags 2017

This Sub-Decree aims to increase effectiveness of plastic reduction on importation, production, distribution and the use of plastic bag in order to improve the public health, environment and landscape.

Cambodia Instruction No. 025/21 on solid waste management in Phnom Penh 2021

It focuses on solid waste Management in Phnom Penh. It targets to improve and implement new system of solid waste management in Phnom Penh more effectively. 

Cambodia Sub Decree No 36 on Solid Waste Management 2009

The purpose of this sub-decree is to regulate the solid waste management with proper technical manner and safe way in order to ensure the protection of human health and the conservation of biodiversity. This sub-decree applies to all activities related to disposal, storage, collection, transport, recycling, dumping of garbage and hazardous waste. 

Cambodia Urban Solid Waste Management Policy 2020-2030 2020

This policy targets environmental sustainability. 

Malaysia National Marine Litter Policy and Action Plan 2021 - 2030 2021

The National Marine Litter Policy and Action Plan 2021 - 2030 highlights priority areas and actions to address marine litter pollution in Malaysia.

Malaysia Malaysia Plastics Sustainability Roadmap 2021 - 2030 2021

This policy sets strategies and plans to achieve plastic circularity. It also informs stakeholders how to maximize the value of plastic industry thorough necessary measures. It highlights the environmental and financial aspect of the plastic recycling and provide guidance for sustainable business practice. It also adopts life cycle approach in the plastic value chain. 

Indonesia Presidental Regulation in Marine Debris Management - Appendix 2018

This regulation sets strategies such as awareness raising, coastal waste management, funding and investment, monitoring, developing R&D, etc to improve marine waste management. It also has set target to reduce marine plastic waste by 70% by 2025. 

Indonesia Presidential Regulation on Marine Debris Management 2018

This regulation sets strategies such as awareness raising, coastal waste management, funding and investment, monitoring, developing R&D, etc to improve marine waste management. It also has set target to reduce marine plastic waste by 70% by 2025. 

Malaysia Malaysia’s Roadmap towards Single-Use Plastics 2018-2030 2018

The roadmap is designed in phases and includes an action plan to curb plastic use through suggested measures such as pollution charge for plastic bags, no straw by default practice to discourage use of plastics among consumers, pollution levy on manufacturing of plastic bags and others. 

Malaysia Eleventh Malaysia Plan 2016-2020 2016

The plan highlights waste as a resource and outlines strategies for holistic waste management based on the life cycle approach, segregation at source, and through increased investments and coordination. 

Malaysia National Cleanliness Policy 2019 2019

The policy aims to raise public awareness to reduce mismanaged waste disposal through objectives centered on developing a circular economy, strengthening monitoring of solid waste management, reduction in plastic packaging, encouraging 3Rs through separation at source and development of an EPR scheme. 

Malaysia Green Technology Master Plan 2017 2017

The strategy positions the waste sector as a contributor to advancing Malaysia's green technology sector, outlining strategies such as waste monetization and waste-to-energy conversion. 

Malaysia National Solid Waste Management Policy 2016 2016

The policy focuses on developing a comprehensive and cost-effective solid waste management system based on the waste management hierarchy, with an emphasis on 3R, prioritizing reduction in waste, efficient and cost-effective management, and strengthening laws and institutions around waste management. 

Malaysia National Green Technology Policy (2009) 2009

The policy has specific goals to develop capacity within the green technology sector especially for solid waste management.

Myanmar National Waste Management Strategy and Master Plan for Myanmar (2018-2030) 2018

The National Waste Management Strategy and Master Plan intends to identify programmes and actions to enhance solid waste collection through the implementation of 3Rs. 

No. 50/2014 Myanmar Environmental Conservation Rules 2014

Under Chapter IX on Waste Management, waste treatment should be carried per category in a separate, established facility or center.

Myanmar National Sustainable Development Strategy (NSDS) 2009

One of the measures to meet the NSDS's identified goal of promoting sustainable resource management is the effective management of solid waste, particularly dangerous compounds, such as raising public knowledge about solid waste management and encouraging private investment in these services. 

Brunei Darussalam Environmental Protection and Management Order, 2016 19 September 2016

The Order notes that it is all citizens' duty to protect the environment and prevent pollution when carrying out activities such as waste treatment and disposal, hazardous substance processing, handling and disposing, and any activity done on Brunei waters.

Brunei Darussalam Prevention of Pollution of the Sea (Garbage) Regulations 2008 13 December 2008

This prohibits disposal of all plastics into the sea, including synthetic ropes and fishing nets, plastic garbage bags, and incinerator ashes.

Brunei Darussalam Prevention of Pollution of the Sea Order, 2005 9 April 2005

This prohibits discharge of refuse, garbage, waste, effluents, plastics and dangerous pollutants from ships into the sea.

Thailand Roadmap on Plastic Waste Management 2020-2030 2019

The document bans seven types of single-use (including plastic bottle cap seals, oxo degradable plastics and plastic microbeads) plastics and mandates recycling of domestic plastic within the designated time frame.

Thailand Action Plan on Plastic Waste Management Phase II (2023 -2027) 15 June 2023

The action plan on plastic waste has a target to develop an extended producer responsibility (EPR) model.

Thailand Action Plan on Plastic Waste Management Phase II (2023 -2027) 15 June 2023

The second phase of the plastic waste management action plan aims to reduce 100% of target plastic waste to landfills by 2027 and reduce 50% of the potential plastic waste leakage to the sea.

Singapore The National Action Strategy on Marine Litter 2022

Under the National Action Strategy on Marine Litter, coastal water cleaning efforts are prioritized for the removal of flotsam as well as other litters. 

Act 29 of 2019 Singapore Resource Sustainability Act 2019 2019

This Act impose regulatory measures on electrical and electronic waste, packaging (including plastic) waste and food waste. The products are regulated through producer responsibility schemes to promote sustainability. 

Singapore National Recycling Programme 2001

Under this programme, the public waste collectors (PWCs) licensed by NEA are required to provide recycling bins and recycling collection services to all public housing (HDB) estates and private landed properties to recycle their source segregated paper, plastic, metal and glass waste streams. 

Singapore Mandatory Waste Reporting (MWR) for Large Commercial Premises (introduced under Environmental Public Health Act) 2014

Under MWR, owners of hotels, malls, industrial premises, convention, and exhibition centres must report data on waste disposed and recycled and register their planned and current activities for waste reduction. 

Singapore Mandatory Packaging Reporting (regulation introduced by the Resource Sustainability Act) 2021

Under this scheme, producers of packaged products are required to submit packaging data annually and develop plans to reduce, reuse, and recycle plastic packaging. 

Singapore Zero Waste Masterplan 2019

Zero Waste Masterplan aims to raise the government’s efforts for managing waste issues by adopting a circular economy approach. The policy supports the wider use of on-site food waste digesters at commercial premises as well as the development of integrated waste management facility.

Act No. 13 of 1997 Singapore Hazardous Waste (Control of Export, Import and Transit) Act 1998

Under this act, the export, import or transit of hazardous wastes is regulatedin accordance with the principles and provisions of the Basel Convention. The act controls transboundary movement of hazardous waste and provide guidelines for the proper management and disposal of these waste. 

Singapore Environmental Public Health Act 1987 (revised 2020)

The Act provides the management of waste, including the provision of street cleaning, refuse removal for residences, businesses, and industries, and the punishment of litterbugs by corrective work orders. Under section 17 of the Environmental Public Health Act of Singapore, littering is mentioned to be offensive and prohibited with a fine up to $2,000. 

Act 9 of 1999 Singapore Environmental Protection and Management Act 1999

This Act provides for the control of environmental pollution, including air and water for the safe management of hazardous waste and for the protection and management of the environment.

Thailand Maintenance of the Cleanliness and Orderliness of the Country Act B.E. 2535 <1997> Amended B.E. 2560 <2017> (Articles 26, 31, 32,33) 1992, 2007

This legislation provides for the cleanliness of public places within Thailand, with Article 26, and 31-33 prohibiting the dumping of debris in public places, water ways, state-owned enterprises, and anywhere other than places designated by the state.

Thailand Enhancement and Conservation of the National Environmental Quality Act 1992 (Section 70) 1992

The owner responsible for the source of pollution should construct, provide or install of on-site facility for waste removal according to Section 70.

Thailand Ministerial Regulation on Hygienic Waste Management BE2560 <2017> (Clause 5 and 6) 19 April 2017

Clauses 5 and 6 note that waste producers must segregate recyclable and non-recyclable waste, and provide the specifications for recyclable waste bags. 

Thailand The Public Health Act B.E. 2535 <1992> 29 March 1992

This legislation sets out the responsibility of the local government to collect, transport, and dispose of waste or sewage. It also prohibits the dumping, discharging, and discarding of sewage or waste in public places. 

Thailand Ministerial Regulation on Hygienic Waste Management BE2560 <2017> 2017

This legislation covers the procedures of handling waste to ensure hygiene and cleanliness.

Thailand Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act, B.E. 2535 (Chapter 4: Pollution Control) 1992

This chapter covers the different types of pollutions and the governmental body that is responsible, including the scope of laws. These pollution types include air and noise pollution, water pollution, other pollution, and hazardous waste.

Government Regulation 32/2014 (Article 11, 50) Indonesia Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 32 2014 about the Sea 17 October 2014

Article 11 mentions cooperation within countries and international organizations to prevent and combat marine pollution.

Article 50 ensures environmental protection through marine conservation, marine pollution control and prevention and control of pollution.

Government Regulation 21/2010 (Article 3) Indonesia Marine Environment Protection (Article 3) 2010

It requires every ship’s crew to prevent and manage the occurrence of environmental pollution which may include oil, toxic liquids, hazardous materials, garbage, etc. sourced from the vessel to the waters. 

Government Regulation 22/2021 (Article 15) Indonesia Environment Protection, Organization and Management (Article 15) 2 February 2021

Article 15 requires the party/ entity to manage the marine contamination/ damage as a result of their activities. 

Presidential Regulation 38/2018 Indonesia Handling Marine Litter 21 September 2018

The presidential decree reaffirms the country's promise to effectively manage plastic waste by creating a National Plan of Action to combat marine debris. It outlines combating marine debris sources on land as well as raising awareness on the issue. The decree outlines its management arrangement.

Ministry of Environment and Forestry Regulation No. 75/2019 Indonesia Roadmap to Waste Reduction by Producers 2019

This regulation sets a target for producers to reduce their waste generated from sales of products and packaging by 30% by 2029

Law 18/2008 (Article 14 - 16) Indonesia The Act Regarding Waste Management (Obligation) 7 May 2008

Articles 14- 16 of Law 18/2008 stipulates that producer of products and/or packaging must label their products for recycling and are obliged to manage the packaging if it is unable to be decomposed.

Government Regulation 81/2012 (Article 12-14, 17) Indonesia Domestic Waste Management and Similar Waste 15 October 2012

Article 12-14 require producers to limit waste generation through use of packaging/production materials that are easily decomposable, recyclable or reusable. 

Article 17 groups waste into five types (waste with hazardous and toxic materials, hazardous and toxic material waste, biodegradable, reusable, recyclable and others) and provides regental/ municipal governments to arrange waste sorting facilities according to the five categories

Presidential Regulation No. 18/ 2008 (Article 6, 20,21) Indonesia The Act Regarding Waste Management 2008

Article 6 outlines the role of the national and local government to in development of relevant technology and infrastructures for waste reduction, handling and utilization, and facilitation of the 3Rs implementation by generating local awareness, and easing coordination among stakeholders for integrated waste management.

Article 20 states the role of business actors and community (consumers) respectively in waste reduction through use of raw materials in production that produce minimum waste, are recyclable and easily decomposable in nature and the choice of products that are the same in nature. 

Article 21 stipulates government provision of incentives to those who conduct waste reduction and fines for those who do not 

Presidential Regulation No. 97/2017 (Article 5) Indonesia National Policy and Strategy for Household Waste Management and Household Waste - Jakstranas (Article 5) 24 October 2017

Article 5 of Jakstranas sets a goal of reducing the volume of household waste by 30% and recycling 70% of household waste by 2025.

Regulation 03/PRT/M/2013 Indonesia Implementation of Infrastructure and Facilities in Domestic Waste Disposal 14 March 2013

The regulation intends to enhance coverage of waste disposal service through basic infrastructure management that covers sorting, collection, transportation, processing and final waste handling.  

Government Regulation 81/2012 (Article 17) Indonesia Domestic Waste Management and Similar Waste 15 October 2012

Article 17 necessitates waste segregation to be carried out by everybody at the source including managers of residential, commercial, industrial, special areas, public and social facilities, and districts/ city governments 

Presidential Regulation No. 97/2017 Indonesia National Policy and Strategy for Household Waste Management and Household Waste - Jakstranas 24 October 2017

This regulation provides for the reduction and handling of household and similar wastes, with aims to reduce household waste by 30% by 2025.

Law No. 32/2009 Indonesia The Law on Environmental Protection and Management 3 October 2009

This legislation aims to protect the environment of the country from pollution and provides provision for the management of hazardous waste.

Law 18/2008 Indonesia The Act Regarding Waste Management 7 May 2008

This law establishes waste management as the government's responsibility and authority, with public and private sector cooperation in achieving effective and efficient waste management in the country. 

Republic Act No. 9275 (Section 5) Philippines Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 (Water Quality Management Area) 22 March 2004

Section 5 of the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 notes that certain areas should be designated as water quality management areas and each management area should have a multi-sectoral group to manage and monitor the water quality.

Republic Act No. 9275 (Section 27) Philippines Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 (Prohibitions) 22 March 2004

Section 27 of the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 lists out a list of prohibitions regarding dumping waste into water bodies that result in waste washing up on shore or the blockage of the flow of water. It also prohibits actions that will pollute groundwater.

Presidential Decree No. 979 Philippines Marine Pollution Decree of 1976 18 August 1976

The Marine Pollution Decree of 1976 comes as a revision of an earlier decree. It is a national policy on pollution of the seas through dumping waste, either on from vessels or from shore-based establishments, under the responsibility of the National Pollution Control Commission.

Commonwealth Act No. 383 Philippines An Act to Punish the Dumping into Any River of Refuse, Waste Matter, or Substance of Any Kind Whatsoever that may Bring About the Rise or Filling in of River Beds or Cause Artificial Alluvial Formations 5 September 1938

This Commonwealth Act prohibits the dumping of waste into rivers that will cause a rise in elevation of the riverbeds or will block the stream. Transgressors shall be fined or imprisoned not more than six months.

Presidential Decree No. 984 (Sections 8 & 9) Philippines The National Pollution Control Decree of 1976 (Provisions and Penalties) 18 August 1976

Under the National Pollution Control Decree of 1976, Section 8 states that it is prohibited to pollute the water and the air, including constructing establishments that pollute the waterways. Section 9 provides the penalties faced by transgressors, including a fine or imprisonment.

Republic Act No. 9275 (Section 16) Philippines Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 (Clean-Up Operations) 22 March 2004

The Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 has a section noting that those who cause pollution in water bodies are responsible to clean-up their incident. In case of emergency, the relevant government body shall take on the task with the polluting party responsible for the reimbursement.

Republic Act No. 11898 Philippines Extended Producer Responsibility Act of 2022 23 July 2022

The Extended Producer Responsibility Act of 2022 is an amendment of RA9003. It deems that large businesses, those with a total asset worth more than P100 million, are required to recover up to 80% of their plastic packaging waste by 2028. These packaging include sachets, bottles, straws, and single-use plastic bags, among others.

Republic Act 9003 (Section 26 - 33) Philippines Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 (Recycling Program) 26 January 2001

Sections 26 to 33 of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 give provisions for a recycling program. It provides a plan for relevant government agencies to map out reclamation programs, labeling of materials, and marketing of recyclable materials.

Republic Act 6969 Philippines Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990 26 October 1990

This republic act details the management of substances that pose a risk to human health and the environment throughout its life cycle.

Presidential Decree No. 984 Philippines The National Pollution Control Decree of 1976 18 August 1976

This presidential decree makes a revision of the earlier Pollution Control Act (Republic Act 3931), restructuring the National Pollution Commission and introducing new duties, including research.

Republic Act 9003 Philippines Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 26 January 2001

The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 provides a framework for a systematic, comprehensive, and ecological solid waste management program. It is composed of seven chapters subdivided into 66 sections that cover, among others, local government participation, waste segregation, recycling programs, etc

Presidential Decree No. 825 Philippines Providing Penalty for Improper Disposal of Garbage and Other Forms of Uncleanliness and for Other Purposes 7 November 1975

This presidential decree prohibits littering in public places, with either a fine or imprisonment between 5 days to a year. It has a provision for all citizens and establishments to clean their own surroundings.

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