The current government strategies and public perception of air pollution in Bangladesh emphasize only on urban outdoor environment, but some of the highest concentrations of pollutants actually occur in rural indoor environment. The levels of air pollution exposed by the women and children below five years in the kitchens of many millions of village homes during cooking apparently exceed levels found in the worse polluted cities of the world. Excessive use of the low quality biomass fuels (i.e., wood, crop residues, animal dung, etc.) in inefficient traditional cooking stoves with no flue or chimney generates smokes, particulate, carbon monoxide, methane and hundreds of organic compounds including several carcinogens. Based on the studies conducted in other countries and available data from the literature, emission rates of various common air pollutants and green-house gases (GHG) representative of the typical cooking condition of rural Bangladesh are presented in this paper. For most compounds, it appears that solid biomass fuels such as wood burning produces markedly higher emissions than any other fossil fuel (i.e., kerosene, LPG, etc.). The biomass burning emissions vary with fuel type, stove design, combustion conditions, ventilation rates, and duration of cooking. It is possible to reduce emissions and exposure significantly by introducing a stove with higher level of efficiency. Recommendations are provided to formulate and implement a nationwide high efficiency cook stove dissemination program considering policy, economic, and social factors of Bangladesh.