Pacific Environment Outlook


The Pacific Environment Outlookwas prepared simultaneously with the Pacific Regional Assessment on SustainableDevelopment to feed into the Barbados +10 process and ensure consistency of much of reporting.Much of theinformation has been drawn from national and regional reporting to the World Summit on Sustainable Development(WSSD), preparations for the Barbados +10,and from key reports for international and regional multilateralenvironmental agreements.The Pacific Environment Outlookpresents environmental trends by assimilating the drivers that directly and indirectlyaffect the state of the environment. It examines the linkages between social and economic activities and theenvironment in the Pacific SIDS,highlighting their social,economic and environmental vulnerability.The use of nationalassessment reports for the Barbados +10 has enabled the portrayal of national and regional priorities in terms ofthematic environmental issues and cross-cutting institutional capacity needs. This should place Pacific Island Countriesand Territories in a better position to ensure that initiatives to address the human impacts on the environmentincorporate means to reduce socio-economic pressures.It is my sincere hope that this report — Pacific Environment Outlook— will be a useful resource during deliberationsat the Barbados +10 Conference.

Solid Waste Management in Vietnam - An Industrial Ecology Study

| Columbia University

In the past decade, strong economic growth and uncontrolled urbanization have greatly magnified the problems with Vietnam’s solid waste management system, pushing waste management to the forefront of environmental challenges with which it must contend. Not only has there been an increase in the amounts of waste generated, the composition of the waste has changed as well. The current system is already overtaxed due to lack of institutional capacity and insufficient human and capital resources as can be evidenced by low collection rates and inadequate waste facilities. Given socio-economic trends, the issue of how to deal with its solid waste will only become more critical as Vietnam industrializes.

The world Bank Group - Tajikistan Partnership program snapshot

2014 | World Bank

Due to underinvestment, the water supply and sanitation infrastructure has suffered extensive degradation over recent decades and needs substantial rehabilitation. Because of the limited financial and operational capacity of operators, water supply and sanitation systems are inadequately maintained and renewed, and their degradation results in unreliable and inefficient service. The availability of sustainable drinking water and sanitation services is a challenge in both urban and rural areas, with only 59 percent of the population having access to a public water supply (versus the 79 percent Millennium Development Goal [MDG] target for 2015). In urban areas, approximately 50 percent of the population has house connections, and 32 percent yard connections. In rural areas, only 20 percent have access to centralized water supply systems, mainly through public standpipes and yard connections. Water quality in most systems does not meet national drinking standards. Furthermore, only 14 percent of the population has access to centralized sanitation services (44 percent in urban areas and 3 percent in rural areas). Finally, most urban centers do not have adequate solid waste collection, disposal, or recycling.

Optimizing Municipal Solid Waste collection using Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization in GIS based environments: A case study at Danang city, Vietnam

2014 | Elsevier

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an increasing concern at any municipality in the world, and is one of the primary factors that contribute greatly to the rising of climate change and global warming. MSW collection and disposal especially in the context of developing countries are indeed the urgent requirements for the sustainable development of environment and landscape, which rule over the quality-of-life and life expectancy of human being. In this paper, we concentrate on MSW collection at Danang city, which is one of four largest municipalities in Vietnam having high quantity of the average waste load per person and is bearing negative impacts of climate change such as severe weather conditions and natural disasters as a result. A novel vehicle routing model for the MSW collection problem at Danang city is presented. A novel hybrid method between Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization and ArcGIS is proposed to generate optimal solutions from the vehicle routing model of Danang. Experimental results on the real dataset of Danang show that the proposed hybrid method obtains better total collected waste quantity than the relevant ones including the manual MSW collection procedure that is currently applied at this city.

Remote Rural Communities Development Project (RRCDP) to the rescue of Cardamom and Citrus Industry in Bhutan


Citrus (mandarin orange as commonly called) and cardamom are two top export cash crops that contribute substantially to Bhutanese GDP. These two commodities featured as the top 9th and 10thexport items for Bhutan in the Bhutan Trade Statistics 2012 earning Nu. 452.63 million and Nu. 424.68 million respectively.   However, over the last decade or so, the industry has been hit by diseases; Citrus greening or HLB and Cardamom wilt & blight disease causing considerable damage and loss to the horticulture industry. The only way to cope with these diseases, was to get rid of the existing diseased stocks and replace it with disease free plants. It was, however, difficult to get disease free planting materials in want of adequate propagation houses. To the respite of this problem, RRCDP project, a World Bank loan project at MoAF has supported construction of propagation houses and supply of disease free grafted citrus seedlings and disease free cardamom seedlings. The project has already constructed seven cardamom propagation houses and a citrus propagation house at the National Seed Centre, Bhur. The cardamom propagation houses were constructed at a cost of Nu. 10,530,132.19 while the citrus propagation house was constructed at a cost of Nu. 9,574,123.88. Propagation of the planting materials has already started in the newly constructed propagation houses. The benefit of these propagation houses would extend beyond the project areas. From 2015 onwards, an estimated 60,000 numbers of citrus grafts and 252,000 numbers of cardamom seedlings will be available for sale on a yearly basis at the National Seed Centre, Bhur. This will benefit the citrus and cardamom growers as well as the nation in reviving the cash crop industry and in generating much needed revenue. Rehabilitation of the diseased orchards and plantations are also a priority activity for the Department of Agriculture in the 11th Five Year Plan.

Brief on solid waste management in Pakistan

2014 | Pakistan Environmental Proection Agency

Solid waste collection by government owned and operated services in Pakistan's cities currently averages only 50\% of waste quantities generated; however, for cities to be relatively clean, at least 75\% of these quantities should be collected. Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has a proper solid waste management system right from collection of solid waste up to its proper disposal. Much of the uncollected waste poses serious risk to public health through clogging of drains, formation of stagnant ponds, and providing breeding ground for mosquitoes and flies with consequent risks of malaria and cholera.

The kNOwWaste Knowledge Platform was developed through a Project Cooperation Agreement funding by UNEP on 2016. The platform provides data and information on holistic waste management to stakeholders in Asia and the Pacific region. The platform was developed with the following aims: generate and consolidate data or information on holistic waste management, transform data into easily comprehensible outputs for use by key stakeholders, map out and disseminate information on international waste management projects under the GPWM and UNEP projects as well as other international partners, and provide capacity building support through dissemination of data or information support for relevant stakeholders on holistic waste and waste management system.
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