The environmental impact assessment process has been envisaged as an integral part of development planning aimed towards minimizing environmental degradation. This study is a preliminary assessment of the possible environmental impact of a proposed landfill facility for the city of Jammu in . The objectives of this preliminary assessment are: to compile an environmental inventory of the project area, to predict the possible impact on groundwater quality; and to prepare an environmental management plan of the project site. The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in the study area was quantified by using the DRASTIC model. The calculated DRASTIC index number indicates a high pollution potential for the study area.
In a progressive society it is natural that demands of water remain on the rise. In this context the issues are varied and complex in our country, because in there are remarkable variation in the availability of water on account of the regional rainfall and geography. Alongwith, the increasing population and urbanization are having telling effect on the availability and quality of water. In this situation the activity of artificial recharge to ground water is an indispensable measure which is substantially beneficial, as this will help store the surplus rainwater in the form of ground water and in turn arrest the decline of water level and degradation of the quality. All the same it is ecofriendly. This compilation contains some of the techniques that are suited to different geographic and geologic condition.
The artificial recharge to ground water aims at augmentation of ground waterÃ‚Â reservoir by modifying the natural movement of surface water utilizing suitable civilÃ‚Â construction techniques. The guide on Artificial Recharge To Ground Water provides guidelines for planning andÃ‚Â designing of artificial recharge structures, different techniques and monitoring methodologies for the same. Ã‚Â
2015 | UNEP
2012 | Elsevier
This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients such as public sewers or ponds. On biogas farms, most of the manure collected was used for bio-digestion. The farmers used the fermented manure (digestate) as a source of nutrients for crops, but on more than 50\% of the interviewed biogas farms digestate was discharged to the environment. On non-biogas farms, manure was in the form of slurry or it was separated into a liquid and a dry-matter-rich solid fraction. The solid fraction from separation was used for composting and the liquid fraction usually discharged to the environment. The survey revealed that there is a need to improve methods for transporting the manure to the field, as transportation is the main barrier to recycling the liquid manure fraction. Farmers in developing countries need financial and technical support to install biogas digesters and to overcome the problems involved in utilizing the manure. Information about how to pre-treat manure before adding it to the digester is urgently needed. At present too much water is used, and the high volume of slurry reduces the retention time and is a disincentive for transporting and applying the digestate to fields. The users need to be informed about the risk of loss of methane to the environment, how to prevent cooker corrosion and the discharge to recipients. In addition, the study reveals that in developing countries manure management legislation needs to be tightened to control environmental pollution.
2011 | Elsevier
Material flow analysis (MFA) is a useful methodology to describe and quantify complex systems based on the law of mass conservation. It was further adapted to suit the specific conditions in developing countries where the available data is scarce and uncertain. The Ã¢Â€Â˜adapted MFAÃ¢Â€Â™ methodology optimises the number of parameters, describes these parameters as probability distributions and assesses the accuracy and uncertainty of the model values by Monte Carlo simulation. This study illustrates the first successful application of the Ã¢Â€Â˜adapted MFAÃ¢Â€Â™ methodology in a small and low-income area including two neighbouring communes in rural northern Vietnam, where environmental sanitation and traditional agricultural practices are strongly interlinked and have an impact on the surrounding environment. Moreover, data on this area is typically scarce and uncertain. The obtained results reveal that the agricultural system was a significant source of nutrients (nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P)), which affect the surrounding environment mainly due to the overuse of chemical fertilizers. Every year, there were 103Ã‚Â Ã‚Â±Ã‚Â 39Ã‚Â tonnes of N released into the atmosphere, 25Ã‚Â Ã‚Â±Ã‚Â 3Ã‚Â tonnes of N leached to the surface water and 14Ã‚Â Ã‚Â±Ã‚Â 2Ã‚Â tonnes of P accumulated in the soil, all originating from the applied chemical fertilizers. In addition, the sanitation system was also a critical source of nutrients that enter the surface water. 69Ã‚Â Ã‚Â±Ã‚Â 6Ã‚Â tonnes of N and 23Ã‚Â Ã‚Â±Ã‚Â 4Ã‚Â tonnes of P came from households through effluents of on-site sanitation systems (such as latrines and septic tanks) and were directly discharged to surface water every year. Moreover, the whole system annually generated a large nutrient source (214Ã‚Â Ã‚Â±Ã‚Â 56Ã‚Â tonnes of N; 58Ã‚Â Ã‚Â±Ã‚Â 16Ã‚Â tonnes of P) in the form of wastewater, faecal sludge, animal manure and organic solid wastes. The validated MFA was used to model different scenarios for the study site. The first scenario demonstrated that if nutrient management is not improved, wastewater as well as faecal sludge and organic solid waste are expected to double in the year 2020 as compared to that in 2008. The second and third scenario revealed possible strategies to significantly reduce environmental pollution and reuse nutrient sources predicted to be available in the year 2020.