| Kathmandu Metropolitan City
Generation & Collection of KMC: Waste Generation is 0.3 kg/p/day making a total domestic waste gen. App. 246 ton/day and others: Commercial waste (12\%)app. 30 ton/day; Street Waste (12\%) app. 30 ton/day; Waste from VDC (12\%) 30 ton/day. Total Generation: 335 ton/day; Collection 306 ton/day; About 70\% waste are organic. Municipalities are completely responsible. Some new approaches are being tried out in KMC: Door-to-door collection, User fees, Source-separated collection, Composting, and Private sector participation. ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢Â‚Â¬Ã…Â“LandfillingÃƒÂ¢Ã¢Â‚Â¬Ã‚Â on the banks of Bagmati has stopped since the operation of Sisdol Landfill Site from June 5 while Preparation of Action Plan 2004-2015 (CKV) is in progress.
| University of Kalmar
The rapid population growth and urbanization in developing countries as Nepal constitute a threat to the environment. The urbanisation result in more waste and concurrently the development result in new life patterns, standard of living and attitudes change the waste composition. New industries are erected that changes the waste composition to include more and more hazardous waste. Along with the development comes the problems with solid waste and the situation in Kathmandu is at the moment precarious. The environmental problem caused by improper solid waste management in the expanding cities is one of the most urgent improvement issues for the government of Nepal. The main objective of this study was to make a survey of the conflicts of the solid waste management in Kathmandu and to identify issues for further investigations. The work was focused on Gokarna landfill site and the dumping of solid waste at Balkhu, along Bagmati River. To investigate the current situation in Kathmandu field studies and visits were carried out both at Gokarna landfill site and the present dumping site along Bagmati River as well as interviews with people involved in the solid waste management in Kathmandu. The results of the survey showed that co-operation between the municipality, governmental institutions and the private sector that do not exist today are necessary to enable improvements of the solid waste management. Additionally environmental laws and regulations with proper enforcements are needed. It came clear that education of the people in environmental issues such as solid waste management is essential to increase the environmental awareness and improve the situation. To clear what threat the sites constituted to the surroundings the water quality and the waste compositions were investigated. The water quality analysis of water samples taken in Bagmati River upstream and downstream the dumping at Balkhu showed that the water was heavily polluted, though further investigations are needed to clear to what extent the dumping at Balkhu contributes to the pollution. Literature studies showed that the pollution of Bagmati River has increased during later years. A handpicking analysis was carried out on one tonne of waste for dumping at Balkhu showed that the organic fraction was as high as 67 \%. Proper waste separation in combination with a compost plant in Kathmandu would greatly reduce the volume of waste for landfilling. Laboratory studies showed that the waste contains metals as well as heavy metals that eventually will leak out to the surroundings. Since the site does not have any fundamental protective structure, the dumping at Balkhu is considered to constitute a serious environmental threat that can not continue. A model, developed byÃ‚Â municipality, Sweden, was used as a checklist and structural model for inventory and risk assessment of the terminated Gokarna landfill site in Kathmandu to investigate the possibilities of using the model in future environmental inventories and risk assessments of old landfills in developing countries. The model showed to be useful in developing countries since the so-called number of uncertainty enable carrying out the inventory and the risk assessment even though expertise, information, lab facilities etc. are insufficient in the country. Since the model is meant to be used with a minimum of resources it is interesting to use in a developing country such as Nepal. The way the model investigates which landfill/dump that causes the worst environmental impact it gives the possibility to use available resources where they are most needed. By experiences interviews and field visits appear to be the most useful and feasible methods of collecting informative data for the investigation. Results from the water quality investigation, field visits and interviews were used in the investigation, following the risk assessment model, to eventually classify Gokarna landfill site as 2 (B) i.e. further investigations are needed to clear if the site constitutes a concrete environmental conflict. By comparing different solutions for the terminated Gokarna landfill site it came clear that a proper closure with possibly cover and treatment is the most reasonable alternative.
Now with the economic development and increasing people the requirement using equipment for their every day living is increased too, these are the reasons of the environmental issue and because of the people through out their solid waste around the country (provinces and cities) that it is negatively effect to the public health and environment. By understanding of this issue, the Royal of Cambodian government has cared and put out some measures as: preparing regulations for ensuring proper solid waste management with environmental safety, capacity building of skill staffs, educating people to understand the negative effectiveness of waste that will happen to themselves, the proper way of waste disposal with environmental sanitation and encouraging the involved institutions and private companies to behave regulations. This environmental guideline has been gotten by trying very hard of Ministry of Environment and COMPED organization partner, this environmental guideline on Solid Waste Management in Royal Cambodia is fully detail that can be encouraged to behave the ready prepared regulations and it is an important base to help the involved institutions especially province-city authorities and private sectors to improve their Solid Waste Management which is facing the problems and make it better in the future.
2013 | Elsevier
Concentration and distribution of PCBs, PCB 11, and PBDEs in both surficial sediment and soil samples,taken from a zone subject to recent accelerated development, were investigated to assess the environ-mental quality and understand both natural and anthropogenic processes that influence contaminantbehaviors. Values of PCB and PBDE are in the lower range of those reported in literature, typical of lowimpacted coastal zones.
2012 | Elsevier
While assessing many different aspects of contamination by heavy metals and arsenic in sediments, the natural variability in element contents which depends on the grain-size and mineralogical composition of sediments, needs to be taken into account. In previous studies, the normalization of element contents to a reference element such as Al was commonly applied to compensate for granulometric and mineralogical effects. In the present study, through the investigation on the contamination of heavy metals and arsenic in sediments near Haiphong Harbor, the necessity of the normalization towards Al is assessed.
2011 | Health Care Without Harm
The report is divided into two sections: the first reviews the human rights in question at the global level and includes the listing of scientific references and newspaper articles.Ã‚Â Scientific articles are cited in the test in the normal way; newspaper articles are not all cited in the text, but are included to give the reader the fullest possible picture. Where possible, URLs are provided.