Optimising water and phosphorus management in the urban environmental sanitation system of Hanoi, Vietnam

2007 | Elsevier

Many areas in the world face clean water scarcity problems and phosphorus reserves are likely to be depleted in the near future. Still, a large amount of clean water is used to transport excreta through sewer systems. Most of the wastewater generated worldwide is discharged untreated into aquatic systems and leads to water pollution and loss of valuable nutrients. In Hanoi, Vietnam's capital city, high population and economic growth as well as industrialisation have led to a decrease in groundwater level and to serious river and lake pollution. A probabilistic model, simulating the impact of measures on groundwater abstraction and nutrient recovery, was used to determine the impact of policy changes in Hanoi. The results obtained reveal that harmonising environmental sanitation and agricultural systems with one another will considerably increase nutrient recovery for food production, lower expenditure for artificial fertilisers and reduce the nutrient load into the environment. The model can be applied in urban areas of developing countries to assist in the design of environmental sanitation concepts.

Guideline for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater

2006 | WHO, UNEP

The ultimate aim of these Guidelines is to protect and promote public health. Adequate capacity is required at the national level to maximize the benefit of the use of wastewater, excreta and greywater in agriculture and aquaculture, to minimize the health risks involved and to promote proper environmental management, ensuring long-term sustainability. An essential element of this national capacity consists of an enabling policy environment.  This chapter summarizes the information needed to formulate decision-making criteria, establish decision-making procedures and create effective institutional arrangements for their implementation.    The Guidelines are presented in four separate volumes: Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 1: Policy and regulatory aspects Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 2: Wastewater use in agriculture Guidelines for the safe use of wastwater, excreta and greywater. Volume 3: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture Guidelines for the safe use of wastwater, excreta and greywater. Volume 4: Excreta and greywater use in agriculture

Tonle Sap Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project: An ADB-funded Latrine-Building Project in Cambodia

| KOICA, UNEP, caps

Water and sanitation are one of the most pressing issues facing people in rural Cambodia, especially around the Tonle Sap Lake and river basin. Of particular difficulty for sanitation advocates in Cambodia is the old habit of open defecation, with the result of exposing human excreta to the environment. This leads to water and soil contamination and to widespread disease outbreaks. For the many ‘floating communities’ of people living on the lake itself, this is an even larger problem, due to their direct contact with the water. The UN estimated that, in 2008, only 23\% of rural residents and 82\% of urban residents had access to improved sanitation, which means the country still has a long way to go to achieving ‘sanitation for all’. Indeed, rural water coverage is the second lowest in Asia, while infant mortality rates – due in part to high levels of waterborne disease – are the second highest in Asia.

An Environmental Assessment Of The Bay Of Bengal Region


This document is the final report of an environmental assessment in the Bay of Bengal carried out between April 1991 and February 1993, with special reference to fisheries. It includes edited versions of the status reports from every member country of the Bay of Bengal Programme (BOBP). They were presented at the regional workshop held in Colombo, February 2-6, 1993at the conclusion of the assessment. The objective was to assess the problems of environmental degradation in the coastal ecosystems in the Bay of Bengal by reviewing the existing information, analyzing available data and collating it all as a fundamental information base. In the long-term, the project could result in recommendations for coordinated activities in the countries as well as the region to achieve sustainable productivity from the coastal ecosystems and reduce the negative effects on the fisheries resources.

Water Supply & Sanitation: India Assessment 2002

| Planning Commission Government of India

Working on this report at the Planning Commission of India has been an invigorating experience. At the same time, all through its writing, there were dilemmas of various kinds. It is important, at the outset, to outline at least some of these. The size of this report was essentially governed by the guidelines by WHO and UNICEF for the country assessments. The guidelines essentially were meant to ensure a degree of standardisation across country reports. Considering the size and diversity of India and the multiplicity of institutions involved in water and sanitation interventions across the length and breadth of India, one significant and obvious dilemma was that it was impossible to acknowledge each one of them. The fact that some institutions and some interventions have been referred to in this report does not in any way mean that the others are in any way less important or significant. This is particularly true of NGOs and their interventions and of the roles of the various external support agencies, which have in many instances, made invaluable contributions to the sector.

Manure management practices on biogas and non-biogas pig farms in developing countries using livestock farms in Vietnam as an example

2012 | Elsevier

This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients such as public sewers or ponds. On biogas farms, most of the manure collected was used for bio-digestion. 

The kNOwWaste Knowledge Platform was developed through a Project Cooperation Agreement funding by UNEP on 2016. The platform provides data and information on holistic waste management to stakeholders in Asia and the Pacific region. The platform was developed with the following aims: generate and consolidate data or information on holistic waste management, transform data into easily comprehensible outputs for use by key stakeholders, map out and disseminate information on international waste management projects under the GPWM and UNEP projects as well as other international partners, and provide capacity building support through dissemination of data or information support for relevant stakeholders on holistic waste and waste management system.
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