Sixty percent of around 2,900 tones/day MSW in Sri Lanka is collected in the Western Province while 43\% and 25\% in Colombo District and Colombo Municipal limits, respectively. Furthermore, though legal responsibility is with local authorities, no proper execution is observed in most cases.
2006 | Elsevier
The population of Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, increased seven times from 1950 to 1980 with a current population of over 10 million inhabitants. The majority of the cityÃƒÂ¢Ã¢Â‚Â¬Ã¢Â„Â¢s residents are poor. The residents make a heavy demand on resources and, at the same time, generate large quantities of solid waste. Approximately 4 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually in the city, including approximately 0.5 million of untreated industrial waste. This is approximately 1.1 kg/cap/day. EVorts by the various waste management agencies set up by the state government to keep its streets and neighborhoods clean have achieved only minimal success. This is because more than half of these wastes are left uncollected from the streets and the various locations due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of the waste management system. Whilst the benefits of proper solid waste management (SWM), such as increased revenues for municipal bodies, higher productivity rate, improved sanitation standards and better health conditions, cannot be overemphasized, it is important that there is a reduction in the quantity of recoverable materials in residential and commercial waste streams to minimize the problem of MSW disposal. This paper examines the status of recovery and recycling in current waste management practice in Lagos, Nigeria. Existing recovery and recycling patterns, recovery and recycling technologies, approaches to materials recycling, and the types of materials recovered from MSW are reviewed. Based on these, strategies for improving recovery and recycling practices in the management of MSW in Lagos, Nigeria are suggested.
2006 | Elsevier
Many thousands of people in developing country cities depend on recycling materials from waste for their livelihoods. With the focus of the Millennium Development Goals on poverty reduction, and of waste strategies on improving recycling rates, one of the major challenges in solid waste management in developing countries is how best to work with this informal sector to improve their livelihoods, working conditions and efficiency in recycling. The general characteristics of informal recycling are reviewed, highlighting both positive and negative aspects. Despite the health and social problems associated with informal recycling, it provides significant economic benefits that need to be retained. Experience shows that it can be highly counterproductive to establish new formal waste recycling systems without taking into account informal systems that already exist. The preferred option is to integrate the informal sector into waste management planning, building on their practices and experience, while working to improve efficiency and the living and working conditions of those involved. Issues associated with integrating informal recycling into the formal waste management sector are discussed.
2005 | WORLD BANK
ABSTRACT The development objective of the Municipal Infrastructure Development Project for Tajikistan is to improve the availability, quality and efficiency of delivery of basic municipal services to the population of the towns which participate in the project. This Paper seeks the approval of the Country Director for a second level restructuring to extend the closing date of the project. The implementation performance and the outcome outlook of the project are satisfactory. The project is currently completing its third investment phase. Since the last supervision mission in November 2011, disbursements under the Municipal Infrastructure Development Project (MIDP) have continued to progress, with a current actual disbursed balance of USD 15.1 million, or approximately 91.5 percent of total funding. The procurement performance is satisfactory. The overall financial management arrangements are considered moderately satisfactory and acceptable to the Bank. The FY2010 audit report was found to be satisfactory to the Bank. The Project Management Unit (PMU) submits quarterly Financial Management Reports (FMRs) on time and they are satisfactory to the Bank. The achievement of the Project Development Objective (PDO) is highly likely given the fact that many of the outcome indicators have already been met. This will be the second extension of the project. In July 11, 2011 the project was restructured in first level which consisted of: (1) re-allocation of the grant proceeds; (2) trigger of a new safeguard policy on involuntary resettlement; and (3) extension of the closing date of the project from August 31, 2011 to February 28, 2012. Details on project...
2005 | Elsevier
This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1\% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56\%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60\% of the urban population on only 5\% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored.
2005 | Elsevier
Though the solid waste management (SWM) system in Phnom Penh city in general has been upgraded since the waste collection service was franchised out to the private sector, the performance of the existing SWM system is still low. Unreliable and irregular collection service still exists. This means that there are shortcomings in the existing SWM system that need correction. This paper is an attempt to identify those shortcomings in order to ÃƒÂ¯Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Ând ways to improve the existing system. First, the present SWM system is reviewed. Then the system is evaluated to ÃƒÂ¯Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Ând constraints and shortfalls and ÃƒÂ¯Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Ânally some appropriate strategies are proposed that may help make SWM in the city more eÃƒÂ¯Ã‚Â¬Ã¢Â‚Â¬ective and eÃƒÂ¯Ã‚Â¬Ã†Â’cient to meet environmentally sound objectives.
2004 | His Majesty's Government, Nepal
Dharan is a mid-sized municipality located in Sunsari distict, Koshi zone of the Eastern Development Region. It was established in 2017 BS. Dharan is one of the fastest growing cities in the nation and a major urban centre of eastern Nepal. Dharan lies on the southern slope of Mahabharat mountain range immediately north of the Charkoshe Jungle and the terai. The municipality is bordered by Pancha kanya VDC in the east, Bishnupaduka VDC in the west, Vedetar VDC and Panchkanya VDc in the north and Charkoshe Jhadi in the south. With the establishment of the B. P. Koirala Teaching Hospital, Dharan is becoming a centre for education and health facilities.
2003 | RRC.AP
The Bangkok City State of the Environment 2001 is the first city based SoE in Thailand and has been jointly preparedby Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) and UNEP. BMA has played a very crucial role in carrying out the assess-ment by soliciting input from several government departments, agencies, and institutions. While addressing the keyenvironmental problems in Bangkok City, the report aims to drive appropriate policy setting, environmental action plan-ning, and resource allocation.Five priority key issues for the state of environment report for Bangkok City have been identified in consultation withBMA and other government agencies and analyzed using the ÃƒÂ§pressure-state-impact- responseÃƒÂ© (PSIR) analytical frame-work. Ã‚Â The five key environmental issues identified for Bangkok City are: air pollution, water pollution, solid and hazard-ous waste, land subsistence, and noise pollution.Growing expansion of industry, increased number of vehicles, and construction activities have led to significantdeterioration of the air quality as well as increased level of noise pollution in the city. The major pollutants found in theatmosphere of the city are suspended particulate matter (PM-10), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide andozone. Bangkok residents are prone to the risk of contracting chronic inflammation respiratory diseases and other relatedhealth problems. The canals are highly polluted due to direct discharge of wastewater throughout the city area. There areinstances of constant exchange of flow between groundwater and the leaching pit wastewater, leading to an increasedcontamination of ground water. Due to Ã‚Â increasing population, consumption pattern and changing lifestyle with economicgrowth, solid waste generation has become a major issue. Bangkok and surrounding areas are facing considerable landsubsidence problems (with subsidence rate up to 10 cm./year in some critical areas) due to large withdrawal of ground-water from the aquifers. The land subsistence phenomenon has also aggravated flooding problems in some part of cityduring rainy seasons. In order to deal with these problems, the central and local governments, along with BMA, haveinitiated a number of policy measures and activities to improve environmental conditions in Bangkok City.
2002 | UNEP IETC
This report is a result of a small survey conducted in 2002 by UNEP IETC in cooperation with the ASEAN Working Group for Multilateral Environmental Agreements (AWGMEA). The survey was undertaken to prepare a background paper on waste management in the sub-region prior to the holding in Kuala Lumpur in October 2002 of an ASEAN High Level Consultation Meeting. The focus is to deliberate on a proposal to establish a regional framework for collaboration in sustainable integrated waste management. This is a joint publication of UNEP IETC and the ASEAN Secretariat. It is envisaged to be a reference for planning, programming and policy reviews on waste management in each member state of ASEAN. It is also planned to be updated every two years so that it can serve as a supplement to the GEO, a biennial publication of UNEP, on the specialized area of waste management. Pls visit complete report online.
2002 | UNEP RRC.AP
Even though the Maldives contributes less than 0.01\% to global emission of GHGs, the Maldives is in fact one ofthe most vulnerable countries to climate change and sea level rise. The seven main areas of vulnerability to climatechange observed are land loss and beach erosion, infrastructure damage, damage to coral reefs, impact on theeconomy, food security, water resources, and human health. Local air pollution in MalÃƒÂ©, has become a growingconcern, but the air quality of the Maldives is mainly affected by transboundary air pollution. The management of solid waste has been emerged as a critical issue. Inadequate facilities to deal with solid wastes,besides access to safe water and sanitation, have hampered basic societal structure. Where freshwater is already avery scare resource, the superficial hydrogeology of groundwater aquifers have been contaminated by sewage,chemicals, and pathogens. Improper sewage disposal facilities have resulted poor groundwater quality.While marine biodiversity is the most significant and vital resource base for the country, the livelihood has traditionallybeen marine based putting tremendous pressure on marine resources. The marine resources continue to be themain generator of food, earnings, employment, and shelter. Coral mining for housing construction and highdemand in the international market for certain reef species has exerted enormous pressure on the islands biodiversity.Mining of corals have also resulted considerable amount of beach erosion and other adverse environmentalimpacts such as migration of residential reef fish communities and other living organisms.While natural resource base such as coastal and marine resources and the tourism provide a great opportunity foreconomic development and prosperity in Maldives, there is a need of considering appropriate policy packages,determined actions, and ecologically sound technologies, to ensure environmental security and sustainability for thepresent as well as future generations.