Waste and Climate Change

Law / Policy

Case Studies

Reports

The effect of aeration position on the spatial distribution and reduction of pollutants in the landfill stabilization process

2013 | Sage

Three pilot-scale simulators with different aeration systems were constructed to explore the effects of aeration position on the reduction of pollutants. The simulator with a bottom aeration system successfully distributed oxygen and efficiently inhibited methane production. A close relationship was found between the oxygen distribution and the removal of pollutants, especially that of nitrogen. The transition between nitrification and denitrification in the longitude direction of the simulator with a bottom aeration system contributed to nitrogen removal in aerobic conditions. This process can be defined as a new path for nitrogen removal in addition to simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The concentration of NH4 -N, total nitrogen and total organic carbon dropped to 3, 78 and 204 mg, respectively, after 312 days of bottom aeration and to 514, 659 and 828 mg, respectively, after 312 days of top aeration. These results indicate that the bottom aeration system was more efficient for reducing pollutants than the top aeration system.

Clean Energy Future and Carbon Pricing

2012 | Metropolitan Waste and Resource Recovery Group

Recent federal legislation introduces a mechanism for pricing greenhouse gas emissions. The price is fixed for an initial three years from July 2012 to July 2015, starting at $23 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (t CO2-e) and rising in the following two years by 2.5\% plus the rise in the consumer price index (CPI). From July 2015, a cap-and-trade system will operate with a flexible price determined by the market. In the first years of the flexible price period a floor price of $15/t CO2-e plus CPI plus 4\% per year will be applied.    Liability for the carbon price falls on sites which annually emit 25,000 t CO2-e or more. The methods to determine liabilities are those of the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting (NGER) Act. The liable entity is generally the organisation with operational control of the facility. This could be a local government. Carbon pricing acts largely to support the existing directions of councils’ waste strategies, diversion from landfill and waste minimisation

Greenhouse gas emission mitigation potential of rice husks for An Giang province, Vietnam

2011 | Elsevier

To evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation potential of rice husk utiliza-tion, a life cycle inventory analysis was conducted for 18 scenarios. The allocation of fuels, other than rice husks, was decided based on the current demand for and supply of rice husks. To prevent the bulky nature of rice husks, briquette production is also discussed. In the power generation scenarios, the differences between two capacities (5 MW and 30 MW) were analyzed. The results of analysis reveal that CH4 and N2O emissions from open burning contribute largely to the current GHG emissions. Therefore, ceasing open burning alone has a large GHG mitigation potential. The use of briquettes, even though GHG is emitted during the production stage, can still contribute to GHG emission mitigation as the production is more efficient than rice husk burning or dumping. In the power generation scenarios, most GHG emissions were derived from the combustion process. Therefore, gasification which has a little combustion process is the most efficient GHG mitigator. Both the replacement of grid electricity by generated electricity, and the replacement of diesel oil by pyrolyzed oil show larger GHG mitigation potentials than what could be derived from open burning cessation alone.

Implications of Carbon Pricing for Waste Management in Metropolitan Melbourne

2011 | Metropolitan Waste and Resource Recovery Group

Waste management has both negative and positive greenhouse impacts. Negative impacts include emissions from landfills,organics processing and fossil fueluse. Positive impacts include the generation of renewable energy, emission offsets from materials recovery and carbon storage The Federal Government’s movesto put a dollar price on some of these carbon impacts will affect the costs of waste management. This information sheet summarises the ways that carbon pricing are likely to affect waste management in metropolitan Melbourne. It addresses the carbon pricing mechanism, the carbon farming initiative, materials and energy recovery and what council waste managers can do. It has been developed by Blue Environment Pty Ltd on behalf of MWMG.

Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities A comparative review focusing

2011 | Elsevier

The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted due to waste management in the cities of developing countries is predicted to rise considerably in the near future; however, these countries have a series of problems in accounting and reporting these gases. Some of these problems are related to the status quo of waste management in the developing world and some to the lack of a coherent framework for accounting and reporting of greenhouse gases from waste at municipal level. This review summarizes and compares GHG emissions from individual waste management processes which make up a municipal waste management system, with an emphasis on developing countries and, in particular, Africa. It should be seen as a first step towards developing a more holistic GHG accounting model for municipalities. The comparison between these emissions from developed and developing countries at process level, reveals that there is agreement on the magnitude of the emissions expected from each process (generation of waste, collection and transport, disposal and recycling). The highest GHG savings are achieved through recycling, and these savings would be even higher in developing countries which rely on coal for energy production (e.g. South Africa, India and China) and where non-motorized collection and transport is used. The highest emissions are due to the methane released by dumpsites and landfills, and these emissions are predicted to increase significantly, unless more of the methane is captured and either flared or used for energy generation. The clean development mechanism (CDM) projects implemented in the developing world have made some progress in this field; however, African countries lag behind.

Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa

2011 | Elsevier

This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56\% (+/25\%), which is approximately 40\% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

GHG emissions from waste sector of INC of Myanmar

2010 | NIES

This comprehensive power point presentation provides substantial useful data on different parameters in waste management. It also highlights different methods currently used for collection and treatment of waste in the country.

Carbon emissions reduction strategies in Africa from improved waste management: A Review

2010 | Elsevier

The paper summarises a literature review into waste management practices across Africa as part of a study to assess methods to reduce carbon emissions. Research shows that the average organic content for urban Municipal Solid Waste in Africa is around 56\% and its degradation is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper concludes that the most practical and economic way to manage waste in the majority of urban communities in Africa and therefore reduce carbon emissions is to separate waste at collection points to remove dry recyclables by door to door collection, compost the remaining biogenic carbon waste in windrows, using the maturated compost as a substitute fertilizer and dispose the remaining fossil carbon waste in controlled landfills.

Carbon-Making the right choice for waste management in developing countries

2007 | Elsevier

Due to initiatives such as the clean development mechanism (CDM), reducing greenhouse gas emissions for a developing country can offer an important route to attracting investment in a variety of qualifying project areas, including waste management. To date CDM projects have been largely confined to schemes that control emission from landfill, but projects that avoid landfilling are beginning to be submitted. In considering the waste options which might be suitable for developing countries certain ones, such as energy from waste, have been discounted for a range of reasons related primarily to the lack of technical and other support services required for these more sophisticated process trains. The paper focuses on six options: the base case of open dumping; three options for landfill (passive venting, gas capture with flaring, and gas capture with energy production), composting and anaerobic digestion with electricity production and composting of the digestate. A range of assumptions were necessary for making the comparisons based on the effective carbon emissions, and these assumptions will change from project to project. The highest impact in terms of carbon emissions was from using a sanitary landfill without either gas flaring or electricity production; this was worse than the baseline case using open dumpsites. Landfills with either flaring or energy production from the collected gas both produced similar positive carbon emissions, but these were substantially lower than both open dumping and sanitary landfill without flaring or energy production. Composting or anaerobic digestion with energy production and composting of the digestate were the two best options with composting being neutral in terms of carbon emissions and anaerobic digestion being carbon negative. These generic conclusions were tested for sensitivity by modifying the input waste composition and were found to be robust, suggesting that subject to local study to confirm assumptions made, the opportunity for developing CDM projects to attract investment to improved waste management infrastructure is significant. Kyoto credits in excess of 1 tCO2e/t of waste could be realised.