Waste Agricultural Biomass

Law / Policy

Zero net emissions by 2020

2014 | City of Melbourne

Zero Net Emissions by 2020 update 2014 is our strategy for the next four years and beyond to become a carbon neutral city and create a bold and sustainable future for the municipality of Melbourne. It outlines a way forward for the municipality of Melbourne that has been developed by City of Melbourne in collaboration with key stakeholders. We recognize that we can achieve such an ambitious goal working alone. Council operations make up less than one per cent of the greenhouse gas emissions of the municipality, so we have developed a plan for key stakeholders to work together towards this goal.

Greenhouse Action Plan 2006-2010

2006 | Environment Committee

Council has played a leading role in greenhouse reduction activities since the mid 1990's. Council joined the international Cities for Climate Protection TM (CCP TM) Program in 1998 and the national Greenhouse Challenge program in 2000. Since joining these programs Council recognised the need to develop a longer term approach to greenhouse issues, and adopted the Zero Net Emissions by 2020 strategy in 2003. Zero Net Emissions by 2020 identifies three key strategies: Improved Building Design: Reduction in energy use through the uptake of ESD principles in new and existing buildings. Use of renewable energy: Increased uptake of renewable energy and renewable energy generation such as solar hot water and photovoltaics. Sequestration: The offset of remaining emissions through tree planting, which sequesters carbon from the atmosphere. The strategy recognises that deeper abatement coupled with a strategic approach is required to curb the impacts of global warming.

Case Studies

Emission reduction profile Myanmar

2013 | UNEP

Burma is among the least emitting countries in the world, with 0.3 tCO2e per capita per year, and total annual GHG emissions of 12 million tCO2 -- excluding any methane emissions from agriculture, which has not been estimated (World Bank). In the WRI assessment, however, Myanmar has been attributed annual GHG emissions of 265 million tCO2e/year2, including all greenhouse gasses. This indicated significant emissions from agriculture.

Health-Related Benefits of Attaining the 8-Hr Ozone Standard

2005 | Environmental Health Perspectives

During the 2000-2002 time period, between 36 and 56\% of ozone monitors each year in the United States failed to meet the current ozone standard of 80 ppb for the fourth highest maximum 8-hr ozone concentration. The simple average of health impacts across the 3 years includes reductions of 800 premature deaths, 4,500 hospital and emergency department admissions, 900,000 school absences, and > 1 million minor restricted activity days.

Implementation Plan for the ABC East Asian Regional Experiment 2005

2005 | ABC-East Asian Regional Experiment Science Team

This document provides the implementation plan and the related information of the ABC East Asian Regional Experiment (ABC-EAREX2005) organized by scientists under the UNEP/Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) Project (Ramanathan and Crutzen, 2003; http://www-abc-asia.ucsd.edu/). The objective of the ABC project is to understand the effects of human activities in the Asian region to the earth's climate and environment. Two regional experiments for the first phase of the ABC project have been planed in order to delineate the regional aspects of the effects and to compare the results from instruments used by different groups in the project in order to assure the homogeneity of data acquired by the ABC monitoring system in Asia. The earlier regional experiment proceeding to the EAREX2005 is the ABC Maldives Monsoon Experiment (APMEX) conducted from 1 October to 15 November 2004 in the South Asian region with the main station at Hanimandhoo, Maldives. Following the APMEX, the EAREX2005 will be conducted in March 2005 in the East Asian region (Fig. 1) where large anthropogenic emission sources of aerosols and gases are distributed. Especially in springtime the area is covered by various type aerosols including Asian mineral dust and anthropogenic aerosols. The difference in the airmass characteristics in the two experiments is important to be studied by the experiment.

Report Shows How to Save Ozone Layer While Combating Climate Change

2005 | Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

After 20 years of protecting the ozone layer with a new generation of chemicals, Governments are confronting the fact that these ozone-friendly substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also happen to be greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. To assess the extent of the problem and the available solutions, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in collaboration with the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP), has produced a Special Report entitled "Safeguarding the ozone layer and the global climate system: issues related to hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs)".

Health effects from short-term exposures to Ozone

| CAI-Asia

A large body of evidence shows that ozone can cause harmful respiratory effects including chest pain, coughing, and shortness of breath, which affect people with compromised respiratory systems most severely. When inhaled, ozone can cause acute respiratory problems; aggravate asthma; cause significant temporary decreases in lung function of 15 to over 20 percent in some healthy adults; cause inflammation of lung tissue; increase hospital admissions and emergency room visits; and impair the body's immune system defenses, making people more susceptible to respiratory illnesses. (Read the rest of the article at the CAI-Asia website)


Global Waste Management Outlook (GWMO)

2015 | UNEP

Manure management practices on biogas and non-biogas pig farms in developing countries using livestock farms in Vietnam as an example

2012 | Elsevier

This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients such as public sewers or ponds. On biogas farms, most of the manure collected was used for bio-digestion. The farmers used the fermented manure (digestate) as a source of nutrients for crops, but on more than 50\% of the interviewed biogas farms digestate was discharged to the environment. On non-biogas farms, manure was in the form of slurry or it was separated into a liquid and a dry-matter-rich solid fraction. The solid fraction from separation was used for composting and the liquid fraction usually discharged to the environment. The survey revealed that there is a need to improve methods for transporting the manure to the field, as transportation is the main barrier to recycling the liquid manure fraction. Farmers in developing countries need financial and technical support to install biogas digesters and to overcome the problems involved in utilizing the manure. Information about how to pre-treat manure before adding it to the digester is urgently needed. At present too much water is used, and the high volume of slurry reduces the retention time and is a disincentive for transporting and applying the digestate to fields. The users need to be informed about the risk of loss of methane to the environment, how to prevent cooker corrosion and the discharge to recipients. In addition, the study reveals that in developing countries manure management legislation needs to be tightened to control environmental pollution.