2004 | IGES
Urban Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asian Mega-Cities: Policies for a Sustainable Future aims to quantify CO2 emissions from energy use and analyse their driving factors for selected Asian Mega-Cities-Tokyo, Seoul, Beijing and Shanghai. It presents discussions on the nature of future challenges. Further, it highlights the needs for taking into account the overall energy and CO2 "footprint" of cities. Finally, it presents policy directions, policy challenges and identifies major opportunities and barriers for integrating CO2 considerations into local environmental policies.
2002 | WHO
Around half of the worldÃ¢Â€Â™s population, some 3 billion people, rely on biomass fuels such as wood, animal dung, and crop residues, and coal for domestic energy needs. Over the past 25 years, transition to cleaner fuels among the poor has slowed dramatically and there is evidence that reliance on biomass is increasing in some parts of the world. Typically burnt in open fires or poorly functioning stoves, the use of these fuels leads to very high levels of indoor air pollution. Smoke exposure affects mainly women and young children who accompany their mothers during cooking and other households activities. Studies from several countries report average particulate levels that exceed United States Environmental Protection Agency standards 20 times or more.
2002 | WHO
Information on indoor air pollution sources, health effects and mitigating measures. World Health Organization brochure.
| City of Melbourne
The City of Melbourne is working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions across the municipality to zero by 2020 and is leading the way in ensuring our future sustainability and to avert the consequences of climate change. Our aim is to end Melbourne's contribution to global warming by 2020.
| World Bank
The World Bank has been engaged on air quality management issues in India for almost ten years. For the first time in 1995, an assessment by the World Bank assigned monetary values to the health impacts of urban air pollution an effort that contributed to the movement for clean air in Indian cities. Since then the political economy of decision making with regards to urban air quality management (UAQM) in India has evolved, with an active role being played by civil society and judiciary in influencing policy decisions. In recent years a number of cities have started to clean-up their act! However, cities continue to grow in size and population, with a consequent increase in sources of air pollution particularly the number of motor vehicles and the vehicle-kilometers traveled.
2012 | Elsevier
Importation of second hand of Electric and Electronic Equipment (EEE) into Kingdom of Cambodia will be generated E-waste because of low quality and short period time for using. E-waste generated and handle practiced by formal and informal sector, which is improper practice on storage, collection, transportation and discarding with municipal waste collect and after that disposed at dumping-site. Ministry of Environment (MoE) in role of responsible the prevention, protection as well as minimizing/reduction all activities that impact to human health and environment from all sources polluted is effort to develop project proposal to conduct research, consultation workshop, training workshop and dissemination to stakeholders related to E-waste generation and its impact to human health and environment. All project supported among technical expert and financial supported under Basel Convention. The international organization especially, Secretariat of Basel Convention(SBC) coordination with Basel Convention Regional Center for South-East Asia(BCRC-SEA) and Basel Convention Regional Center China(BCRC-China), Ministry of Environment, Japan, Ministry of Environment, Korea and UNEP IETC as well, to provided the project proposal to Ministry of Environment, Cambodia through Basel Focal point to research study and developed document reporting on inventory outcome of Electronic and Electric Waste in the Kingdom of Cambodia, national inventory on use EEE in Cambodia, WEEE/E-waste management in Phnom Penh, guideline on the environmentally sound management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in Cambodia and disseminate workshop and training workshop to promote awareness raisingÃ‚Â to stakeholders on the environmentally sound management of Electronic and Electrical Wastes and inventory of E-waste manual etc, which are implemented by Cambodia Environmental Association (CEA) and Department of Environmental Pollution Control (DEPC).Ã‚Â Base on national inventory on using EEE in Cambodia, the importation of EEE/UEEE has been continuously done into the Kingdom of Cambodia with different amounts responding to internal demands. From 2000 to 2006, imported TVs have 903,334 sets (Colour 271291 sets, and black-white 632,043 sets); air-con 193,391 sets; refrigerator 91,935 sets; PC 14010 sets; MP 343,033; and washing machine 30,941 sets. Remarkably, these combined EEE/UEEE statistics have recorded by responsible institutions, while importers registered and asked for permission to import these materials/facilities.Ã‚Â The inventory has indicated the waste generation by type of UEEE such as: TV sector has great amounts of 40,983.00 kg, while air-conÃ¢Â€Â™s wastes have 13,318.80 kg, MPÃ¢Â€Â™s wastes 2,016.24 kg, and PCÃ¢Â€Â™s wastes 1,310.40 kg (CEA report 2007).Ã‚Â The increasing e-waste generated every year and implementation of the informal sector of the activities of collection, transportation, repairing, reassemble and dismantling, which is unsound management during practicing; it will cause effect to human health and environment.
2009 | Ministry of Environment, Kingdom of Cambodia
Inventory studies show that E-waste generation potential ranges from 6792 metric tons in 2008 to 22,443 metric tons in 2019. Further, the results of extensive field work highlighted that the E-waste trade value chain consists of stakeholders, who use twelve processes during E-waste management. These processes are carried out in an environmentally unsound manner, which need to be addressed both at national and city level. These findings are in line with CEA report, which stated that an action plan for the environmentally sound management of E-waste should be prepared and implemented in Cambodia. In this context, the following sections describe the identified needs, objectives, approach and methodology and capacity building effort to address these needs within municipal limits of PPM. Further, the format of the report describes the outcome of this effort.
2009 | Ministry of Environment, Cambodia
Phnom Penh Municipality (PPM) is the capital city of the Royal Kingdom of Cambodia with a total land area of 376.95 Km2. It is equal to 0.20% of the total land area of the country. Administratively, PPM is divided into 7 districts (up to 2008) but now one more district has been determined, 76 communes, 689 villages and 4,320 groups. The population of the city is approximately 1,080,519 consisting of 188,769 households out of which 43% live in urban area and 57% in rural area. Population growth in the city is 3.92\%. Double-digit economic growth rates in recent years have triggered an economic boom in Cambodia, with new hotels, restaurants, and residential buildings springing up around the PPM. Due to improved living standards, globalization, international trade, and tourism, the consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has rapidly increased in the urban centers in the country. Since Cambodia does not have manufacturing base for electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), it is importing both brand new and second hand EEE to cater to existing demand. This is leading to generation of E-waste and its management as a major issue in cities/urban centers in Cambodia. According to the CEA survey report of E-waste in Cambodia, it was found that there exists some environmental and human health concerns though the utilization of second hand EEE/ Used EEE. Therefore, there is a need to further consider strengthening, monitoring and managing imported EEE with reasonable and useable condition.
2007 | UNEP
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world. In developed countries, it equals 1% of total solid waste on an average. The increasing market penetration in developing countries, replacement market in developed countries and high obsolescence rate make WEEE/E-waste one of the fastest waste streams. There is a pressing need to address e-waste management particularly in developing countries. The presence of valuable recyclable components attracts informal and unorganised sector. The unsafe and environmentally risky practices adopted by them pose great risks to health and environment. For effective WEEE/E-waste management, we need to quantify and characterize this waste stream, identify major waste generators, and assess the risks involved. A scientific, safe and environmentally sound management system, including policies and technologies, needs to be developed and implemented.