Reports & Publication

Asian Sanitation Data Book 2008: Achieving Sanitation for All

2009 | Asian Development Bank

The first data book on sanitation for the Asia and Pacific region, this book features raw data and analyses on the sanitation situation in 27 cities. The initiative was realized in response to the needs of Asian cities and local governments, which gathered at the International Seminar on Sanitation 2007— Delivering Our Vision: Sanitation for All, organized by CITYNET, ADB, and the city government of Makati, at the ADB headquarters in Metro Manila, Philippines, in November 2007. Sanitation has long been an issue that has received little attention due to its complexity. The absence of relevant data has hindered cities and local governments from adopting appropriate policies and strategies to meet the provision of “sanitation for all.” Moreover, technologies that reflect the needs of communities, as well as the communities’ ability and willingness to pay for better sanitation, are limited. This publication, the first joint effort of CITYNET, the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), and Veolia Environnement, highlights the need for more work to be done on sanitation in Asia and the Pacific. Focus and action must be directed at accurate data collection and management to support decision making, appropriate and low-cost technologies, and the allocation of resources for the provision of sanitation. These are but a few issues that need immediate attention and action. Contents Summary of Findings Sanitation Comparison City Sanitation Profile Appendix

Identifying Constraints to Increasing Sanitation Coverage

2008 | The world bank, Water and Sanitation Program

This field note summarizes research from two studies undertaken in rural and peri-urban areas of Cambodia; one on the demand forlatrines among consumers, and the other on the supply of latrines by the private sector. It provides discussion on the opportunity toincrease latrine purchase and installation via market forces, andoutlines the recommended interventions on both the demand andsupply dimensions of the market to achieve this. There is a strong demand for latrines among the Cambodian population, yet this demand remains mostly unrealized. While there is a functioning market for latrines, it is constrained by a strong preference for unaffordable top-end designs on the consumer side, and a limited ability to supply lower cost or upgradable latrines on the supply side. These weaknesses can be addressed. It has been demonstratedthrough Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) efforts that the high-end design preference can be overcome and consumers will construct cheaper latrines if adequately motivated to do so. The supply side needs to be strengthened to provide for the cheapest and mid-range end of the market. The components ofcheaper designs are available. However, cheaper design options are not ‘packaged’ in a way that is obvious or easily accessible to consumers, nor with clear pricing information, nor in a way that maps out an upgrade path starting with a lower cost initialinvestment. Developing market strategies that supply the required packaged information, products and services and that equally focus on demand creation to persuade consumers to consider alternate and more affordable options, may help turn stated demand into an actual acquisition and contribute to increased sanitation coverage in the country.

Economic Impacts of Sanitation in Cambodia Summary

2008 | The world bank, Water and Sanitation Program

In 2004, only about 17\% of Cambodian people had access to improved sanitation, meaning that there were still more than 11 million Cambodians living with an unimproved latrine or with no latrine at all. Although the figure given by the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) in 2005 indicates the increase of access coverage to nearly 22\% in 2005, it is estimated that about 204,000 people need to gain access to improved latrines each year if Cambodia is to achieve the internationally-set Millennium Development Goal target of reducing by half in 2015 the proportion of people without improved sanitation from the base year of 1990. While there is a consensus that lack of access to clean water and improved sanitation has a variety of impacts, there is often a lack of evidence to affirm that poor sanitation imposes a significant burden on society. In response, the “Sanitation Impact” study, initiated by the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program, aims to generate sound evidence on the negative impacts of existing sanitation and hygiene conditions and the potential benefits of improvementsin sanitation and hygiene in Cambodia.

Identifying Constraints to Increasing Sanitation CoverageSanitation Demand andSupply in Cambodia

2008 | The world bank

This field note summarizes research from two studies undertaken in rural and peri-urban areas of Cambodia; one on the demand forlatrines among consumers, and the other on the supply of latrines by the private sector. It provides discussion on the opportunity toincrease latrine purchase and installation via market forces, andoutlines the recommended interventions on both the demand andsupply dimensions of the market to achieve this.There is a strong demand for latrines among the Cambodian population, yet this demand remains mostly unrealized. While there is a functioning market for latrines, it is constrained by a strong preference for unaffordable top-end designs on the consumer side, and a limited ability to supply lower cost or upgradable latrines on the supply side.These weaknesses can be addressed. It has been demonstratedthrough Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) efforts that the high-end design preference can be overcome and consumers will construct cheaper latrines if adequately motivated to do so. The supply side needs to be strengthened to provide for the cheapest and mid-range end of the market. The components ofcheaper designs are available. However, cheaper design options are not ‘packaged’ in a way that is obvious or easily accessible to consumers, nor with clear pricing information, nor in a way that maps out an upgrade path starting with a lower cost initialinvestment. Developing market strategies that supply the required packaged information, products and services and that equally focus on demand creation to persuade consumers to consider alternate and more affordable options, may help turn stated demand into an actual acquisition and contribute to increased sanitation coverage in the country.This field note summarizes research from two studies undertaken in rural and peri-urban areas of Cambodia; one on the demand forlatrines among consumers, and the other on the supply of latrines by the private sector. It provides discussion on the opportunity toincrease latrine purchase and installation via market forces, andoutlines the recommended interventions on both the demand andsupply dimensions of the market to achieve this.There is a strong demand for latrines among the Cambodian population, yet this demand remains mostly unrealized.  While there is a functioning market for latrines, it is constrained by a strong preference for unaffordable top-end designs on the consumer side, and a limited ability to supply lower cost or upgradable latrines on the supply side.These weaknesses can be addressed. It has been demonstratedthrough Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) efforts that the high-end design preference can be overcome and consumers will construct cheaper latrines if adequately motivated to do so. The supply side needs to be strengthened to provide for the cheapest and mid-range end of the market. The components ofcheaper designs are available. However, cheaper design options are not ‘packaged’ in a way that is obvious or easily accessible to consumers, nor with clear pricing information, nor in a way that maps out an upgrade path starting with a lower cost initialinvestment. Developing market strategies that supply the required packaged information, products and services and that equally focus on demand creation to persuade consumers to consider alternate and more affordable options, may help turn stated demand into an actual acquisition and contribute to increased sanitation coverage in the country.

Optimising water and phosphorus management in the urban environmental sanitation system of Hanoi, Vietnam

2007 | Elsevier

Many areas in the world face clean water scarcity problems and phosphorus reserves are likely to be depleted in the near future. Still, a large amount of clean water is used to transport excreta through sewer systems. Most of the wastewater generated worldwide is discharged untreated into aquatic systems and leads to water pollution and loss of valuable nutrients. In Hanoi, Vietnam's capital city, high population and economic growth as well as industrialisation have led to a decrease in groundwater level and to serious river and lake pollution. A probabilistic model, simulating the impact of measures on groundwater abstraction and nutrient recovery, was used to determine the impact of policy changes in Hanoi. The results obtained reveal that harmonising environmental sanitation and agricultural systems with one another will considerably increase nutrient recovery for food production, lower expenditure for artificial fertilisers and reduce the nutrient load into the environment. The model can be applied in urban areas of developing countries to assist in the design of environmental sanitation concepts.

Guideline for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater

2006 | WHO, UNEP

The ultimate aim of these Guidelines is to protect and promote public health. Adequate capacity is required at the national level to maximize the benefit of the use of wastewater, excreta and greywater in agriculture and aquaculture, to minimize the health risks involved and to promote proper environmental management, ensuring long-term sustainability. An essential element of this national capacity consists of an enabling policy environment.  This chapter summarizes the information needed to formulate decision-making criteria, establish decision-making procedures and create effective institutional arrangements for their implementation.    The Guidelines are presented in four separate volumes: Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 1: Policy and regulatory aspects Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 2: Wastewater use in agriculture Guidelines for the safe use of wastwater, excreta and greywater. Volume 3: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture Guidelines for the safe use of wastwater, excreta and greywater. Volume 4: Excreta and greywater use in agriculture

Impacts of Biomass Cook Stove Use on Air Pollution, Global Warming and Human Health in Rural Bangladesh

2002 |

The current government strategies and public perception of air pollution in Bangladesh emphasize only on urban outdoor environment, but some of the highest concentrations of pollutants actually occur in rural indoor environment. The levels of air pollution exposed by the women and children below five years in the kitchens of many millions of village homes during cooking apparently exceed levels found in the worse polluted cities of the world. Excessive use of the low quality biomass fuels (i.e., wood, crop residues, animal dung, etc.) in inefficient traditional cooking stoves with no flue or chimney generates smokes, particulate, carbon monoxide, methane and hundreds of organic compounds including several carcinogens. Based on the studies conducted in other countries and available data from the literature, emission rates of various common air pollutants and green-house gases (GHG) representative of the typical cooking condition of rural Bangladesh are presented in this paper. For most compounds, it appears that solid biomass fuels such as wood burning produces markedly higher emissions than any other fossil fuel (i.e., kerosene, LPG, etc.). The biomass burning emissions vary with fuel type, stove design, combustion conditions, ventilation rates, and duration of cooking. It is possible to reduce emissions and exposure significantly by introducing a stove with higher level of efficiency. Recommendations are provided to formulate and implement a nationwide high efficiency cook stove dissemination program considering policy, economic, and social factors of Bangladesh.

Tonle Sap Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project: An ADB-funded Latrine-Building Project in Cambodia

| KOICA, UNEP, caps

Water and sanitation are one of the most pressing issues facing people in rural Cambodia, especially around the Tonle Sap Lake and river basin. Of particular difficulty for sanitation advocates in Cambodia is the old habit of open defecation, with the result of exposing human excreta to the environment. This leads to water and soil contamination and to widespread disease outbreaks. For the many ‘floating communities’ of people living on the lake itself, this is an even larger problem, due to their direct contact with the water. The UN estimated that, in 2008, only 23\% of rural residents and 82\% of urban residents had access to improved sanitation, which means the country still has a long way to go to achieving ‘sanitation for all’. Indeed, rural water coverage is the second lowest in Asia, while infant mortality rates – due in part to high levels of waterborne disease – are the second highest in Asia.

Technical Brief on Rainwater Harvesting

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A sufficient, clean drinking water supply is essential to life. Millions of people throughout the world still do not have access to this basic necessity. After decades of work by governments and organizations to bring potable water to the poorer people of the world, the situation is still dire. The reasons are many and varied but generally speaking, the poor of the world cannot afford the capital intensive and technically complex traditional water supply systems which are widely promoted by governments and agencies throughout the world. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is an option that has been adopted in many areas of the world where conventional water supply systems have failed to meet people’s needs. The technical brief describes various rainwater harvesting systems and techniques.

Technical Brief on Compost Toilets

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Many types of compost toilets are available today. They are designed to suit a variety of customs, cultures and climates, and vary enormously in price. Composting of human faeces is as old as the hills - it is Nature’s way of safely reintegrating human waste with the soil. All compost toilets, however simple or complex, are devices for helping Nature achieve this. Contrary to popular opinion compost toilets can be very clean and hygienic and do not smell. They save huge quantities of water in a world where water is becoming an increasingly precious resource. This technical brief describes a compost toilet that has proved to be most effective in waterlogged areas where pit-latrines and septic tanks are inappropriate.