Reports & Publication


2010 | UNEP

The training workshop on Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) based on Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle (3R) approach was carried out from 22nd to 24th February 2010 at Axum Hotel, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The training was organized by Forum for Environment (FfE) in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Bahir Dar’s Forum for Environment. The 3-day training was designed to train experts and practitioners who have basic knowledge and roles in the solid waste management at federal and regional levels. The training contents were based on the recently published UNEP’s ISWM guidelines. The training guided the participants on ISWM processes, and it is specifically focused on • characterization and quantification of solid waste, • assessment of the current waste management system and gap therein • target Setting for ISWM and Identification of Stakeholders’ Issues of Concern, and • Development of ISWM Plan and case studies.

First Training Workshop on Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) based on 3R

2010 | UNEP

The training workshop on Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) on Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle (3R) approach was carried out in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia from 27th to 28th February 2010. The training is one activity of the Development of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan for Bahir Dar project. The 2-days training was designed to train the Local Technical Team (LTT); so that the trainees would be able to conduct the ISWM situation analysis and inventory of solid waste at Bahir Dar. The trainees would also be able to provide guidance for other partakers on the survey of solid waste survey based on UNEP's ISWM guidance. The training guided the participants on ISWM survey process, especially on the characterization and quantification of solid waste.

Solid Waste Management in Nairobi: A Situation Analysis

2010 | University of Cape Town

The situational background to Solid Waste Management in Nairobi City is drawn and analysed at from a basic systems perspective to allow for the development of more holistic interventions to the problems and challenges highlighted in the ISWM planning process to this point. The data utilised to this end is sourced from a diversity of sources including; previous research work on solid waste management in Nairobi and other areas, preliminary zone surveys and waste characterisation audits carried out in Nairobi in 2009, UNEP/CCN ISWM Training and Stakeholder Workshops held in Nairobi through 2009, and public and private reports. It is hoped that from this contextual lens, the specific ISWM actions proposed and summarised in the main ISWM Draft Plan document can be better understood and seen to follow from a natural sequence and thread of considerations.

PPP-ISWM Initiative in Bhutan

2010 | UNDP

Urbanization in Bhutan has taken place at a rapid pace over the last 10 years or so. By 2005, the proportion of Bhutanese urban population had grown to 31 percent. It is projected that by 2020 half of the Bhutanese population will be living in urban areas.  Burgeoning urban population has created several environmental problems such as air and water pollution, water shortage, increase of municipal waste volumes and types, congestion of traffic and buildings, and land degradation. The Thimphu Municipality has not yet developed any standard and effective strategy for waste management at the household and community levels.

Household solid waste generation and composition in different family size and socio-economic groups: A case study

2010 | Elsevier

The household waste (HW) constitutes an important fraction in municipal solid waste (MSW). The composition of HW is an important factor in design an effective solid waste management plan for city. The aim of study was to estimate the quantity and quality of HW in terms of socio-economic groups and family size in the Dehradun city, India. A total of 144 households were selected from 11 major blocks of the city and HW quantification and characterization was analyzed for different blocks/colonies. The HW generation rates in the city ranged from 24.5–4147.1 g/day. The average HW quantity in households was estimated: 267.17 g/day (SD = 38.13, n = 144). The food/kitchen waste was the major constituent (≥ 80\% of total weight) of HW in city followed by polythene and plastic (≈7\%), paper (≈6\%), cardboard (≈2\%) glass/ceramic scrap (≈1\%) and other miscellaneous (e.g. cloths, silt, dirt, rubber; all ≈4\%). The HW quantity and composition varied significantly among different socio-economic groups in the city. The maximum HW generation rate was in higher- followed by middle- and lower-income group. The HW generation showed positive correlation with family size (rxy = 0.348, p< 0.01). On the basis of obtained data sets, it is concluded that HW can be a potential resource for energy and manure production if proper waste management system is designed for the city.

Household solid waste generation and characteristic in a Mekong Delta city, Vietnam

2010 | Elsevier

This study was undertaken to evaluate the quantity and composition of household solid waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling in Can Tho city, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Two-stage survey of 100 households was conducted for dry season and rainy season in 2009. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into 10 physical categories and 83 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 285.28 g per capita per day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for 80.02\% and 11.73\%. The authors also analyzed the relations between some socioeconomic factors and household solid waste generation rates by physical categories and subcategories. The household solid waste generation rate per capita per day was positively correlated with the population density and urbanization level, although it was negatively correlated with the household size. The authors also developed mathematical models of correlations between the waste generation rates of main physical categories and relevant factors, such as household size and household income. The models were proposed by linear models with three variables to predict household solid waste generation of total waste, food waste, and plastic waste. It was shown that these correlations were weak and a relationship among variables existed. Comparisons of waste generation by physical compositions associated with different factors, such as seasonal and daily variation were conducted. Results presented that the significant average differences were found by the different seasons and by the different days in a week; although these correlations were weak. The greenhouse gas baseline emission was also calculated as 292.25 g (CO2 eq.) per capita per day from biodegradable components.

Promoting People Participation in Solid Waste Management in Myanmar

2010 | Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 4: 209-222

The purpose of this study was to explore implementation strategies for fostering people’s participation in solid waste management in Myanmar. To achieve this, an action research employing mixed methods was conducted in Bagan City, within the twenty months period. Household attitudes and behavior was collected through questionnaire surveys. In-depth interview, group discussion, organizational and community meetings and observation were conducted to address problem situations, explore strategies to fix the problems and assess the outcomes. The results of the study showed that the current participatory approach, which mainly focuses on raising awareness or imparting environmental education, is not adequate to maximize the people’s participation in Myanmar due to the persistence of institutional and social constraints. This study discovered that promoting people’s participation in its ultimate form is more effective when (1) the municipality develops the knowledge and skills to fulfill the new role of service partner; (2) the people understand (rather than merely being aware of the problems) the harmful effects of their behavior and realize their roles and responsibilities; (3) the people are empowered with knowledge and skill and (4) motivation and interaction exist among all parties.

UNEP Year Book 2009

2009 | UNEP

The UNEP Year Book 2009 presents work in progress on the scientific understanding of global environmental change, as well as issues on the horizon. It aims to raise awareness of interlinkages that could accelerate the rate of environmental change and threaten human and ecosystem health. The 2009 Year Book examines new science and developments in six chapters.It discusses the cumulative effects expected from the degradation of ecosystems, releases of substances harmful to ecosystems and human health, the consequences of climate change, continuing human and economic losses resulting from disasters and conflicts, and the overexploitation of resources. It calls for a greater sense of urgency with respect to responsible governance in the face of approaching critical thresholds and tipping points.

Development of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan for the City of Nairobi, Kenya

2009 |

This document provides a summary of the outputs of the training session on  target setting and stakeholder engagement which was held as part of the project  developing an integrated solid waste management plan for the city of Nairobi.  Three key outputs from the workshop are: a set of high level objectives which represent the motivation for  developing the plan; a list of stakeholder issues which were established through a role playing exercise by the participants; and a set of preliminary targets for the ISWMP. It is suggested that the high level objectives should be further refined by the NTT  (to remove duplication and ambiguity), be presented to stakeholders, and used  to help shape the ISWMP. 

An Assessment of the Existing Policies and Legislative Framework for the Management of Solid Waste: The case of Nairobi, Kenya

2009 | UNEP

Solid waste management in Nairobi City has for over the years been one of the sources of pollution for the City’s environment. The City’s solid waste management system is faced with a number of challenges. One of these challenges is the policy problems and legislative framework aimed at governing the management of the solid waste cycle. It was on this foundation that this exercise was designed to collect and collate the existing policies and legislative framework for the management of solid waste relevant to the City of Nairobi. In so doing, two types of data were collected; primary and secondary. The collection of such data involved the use of different instruments as well as the employment of various sampling methods. The analysis of the collected data reveals that the solid waste management system is riddled with a number of challenges such as non-compliance with the laid down provisions, lack of incentives for best practices in solid waste management, conflicting roles played by some institutions, low public awareness on the Do's and the Don'ts in the solid waste management sector, inadequate infrastructure for solid waste management among others.