Reports & Publication

Review of past research and proposed action plan for landfill gas-to-energy applications in India

2013 | Sage

Open dumps employed for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) are generally referred to as landfills and have been traditionally used as the ultimate disposal method in India. The deposition of MSW in open dumps eventually leads to uncontrolled emission of landfill gas (LFG). This article reviews the MSW disposal practices and LFG emissions from landfills in India during the period 1994 to 2011. The worldwide trend of feasibility of LFG to energy recovery projects and recent studies in India indicate a changed perception of landfills as a source of energy. However, facilitating the implementation of LFG to energy involves a number of challenges in terms of technology, developing a standardized framework and availability of financial incentives. The legislative framework for promotion of LFG to energy projects in India has been reviewed and a comprehensive strategy and action plan for gainful LFG recovery is suggested. It is concluded that the market for LFG to energy projects is not mature in India. There are no on-ground case studies to demonstrate the feasibility of LFG to energy applications. Future research therefore should aim at LFG emission modeling studies at regional level and based on the results, pilot studies may be conducted for the potential sites in the country to establish LFG to energy recovery potential from these landfills.

Municipal waste management in the Netherlands

2013 | EEA

Highlights Recycling is the most preferred option for MSW management in the Netherlands. Already lying at 45 \% in 2001, recycling of MSW in the Netherlands reached the 50 \% recycling target given in the Waste Framework Directive, by 2009, eleven years ahead of the deadline;  A landfill ban covering 35 waste categories was already introduced in 1995; A landfill tax was introduced in 1995 as well, considerably reducing the amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfilled. In 2002, there was a steep increase of the tax level which kept increasing marginally the following years. Finally a sharp increase in 2010 made the landfill tax in the Netherlands the highest in Europe. By 2012, the tax was repealed as the low level of landfilling rendered the tax administratively bothersome; The first National Waste Management Plan set the framework of future waste management in the Netherlands and introduced the control of waste policies under a national perspective; The second National Waste Management Plan introduced a target to increase the recycling of household waste to 60 \% by 2015.

Economic Valuation of Integrated Solid Waste Management in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

2012 | Journal of Applied Sciences

Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a critical issue in Kota Bharu, a compacted city in east coast of West Malaysia. The amalgamation of dwindling financial resources and population growth results in incompetency in controlling and handling excessive solid waste generation, giving rise to adverse effects on environment and public health. This study was attempted to evaluate acceptance of the communities towards introducing Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) to alleviate the drawbacks of current solid waste management. Single-bounded Dichotomous Contingent Valuation Method (DC-CVM) was conducted to estimate communities’ Willingness to Pay (WTP). Primary data obtained through personal interview were analyzed using a logit model. The model estimation shows age, income and occupation are significantly influential in determining the communities’ willingness to pay. The monetary figure derived from the model shows the willingness to pay value of RM 13.91 (USD 4.40) per month. The consciousness of environmental degradation due to current solid waste management drives the communities to yearn for improvement initiatives. The study suggests that intervention by authority to introduce integrated solid waste management is required.

Industry Waste Management Plan Guidelines

2011 | Provincial Government of Western Cape

The purpose of this guideline is to provide industry with assistance and guidance with respect to the development of their industry in WMPs using the Industry Waste Management Plan Guideline. Furthermore, the assessment checklist, that will be used by the DEA&DP for evaluation of the submitted Industry WMPs, is also attached for self-assessment by industry.

Country Analysis Paper (BHUTAN)

2011 | UNCRD

Bhutan is a small landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas bordered by China in the North and India on the other 3 sides. Bhutan has a population of 695,822 in the year 20101 with total land area of 38,394 square.  The landscape is characterized by rugged terrain and steep mountain valleys ranging from 150meters in the sub- tropical valleys in the southern foothills, through temperate zone to heights exceeding 7000 meters in the alpine regions of the mountains.

Toward Sustainable Municipal Organic Waste Management in South Asia

2011 | ADB

Description "This report provides a clear and up-to-date guide for harnessing the huge resource recovery potential of organic waste in the region, and is a practical reference for any policy maker or practitioner working to improve the livability of cities." — Dr. Masaru Tanaka, President, Society of Solid Waste Management Experts in Asia and Pacific Islands The massive scale of urbanization in South Asia is expected to create a surge in demand for solid waste services. An enormous opportunity exists to improve upon the “business-as-usual” approach of uncollected waste and open dumping witnessed throughout the region and to convert this waste into value-added resources, such as alternative fuels and agricultural fertilizers. As approximately 70\% of the region’s municipal waste stream is currently organic (biodegradable) waste, methods such as composting, anaerobic digestion, and conversion to refuse-derived fuels offer a more sustainable course of action. This report aims to align South Asian cities with ADB‘s Strategy 2020 for environmentally sustainable growth and livable cities. It provides a useful management resource, identifying key issues and pointing policy makers, city managers, and practitioners to improved waste treatment technologies. Contents Foreword Preface Executive Summary Sector Overview: Municipal Organic Waste Management Tool Kit for Municipalities and Operators Enabling Framework for Scaling Up Operations The Way Forward Appendixes

Solid waste management in Mekong Delta

2011 | Journal of Vietnamese Environment

Integrated Solid Waste Management (MSW) in Vietnam has been increasing quickly and became one of the most considered environmental problems in Mekong Delta (MD) region covering 13 provinces and municipalities in the south of Vietnam. With a considerably large amount of MSW, the region produces about 5\% of the total amount of MSW of the country. The collection rate of solid waste is about quite high (65 - 72\%) in the cities and rather low (about 40 - 55\%) in the rural areas, with a high content in organic matter (about 60 - 85\%). The climate of MD can be characterized as tropical and monsoonal with a high rate of humidity and a strong impact of flooding. Like other regions too, the MSW collection and treatment system is still underdeveloped and rudimentary, with disposal sites being the sole dumping method of the unsorted MSW remaining untreated by any me-chanical and biological pre-treatment steps. Within this paper, the current treatment, management and operation of MSW systems are introduced, as well as the identification of advantages and dis-advantages, environmental impacts, potential risks of the MSW system within the impact of global climate change. The situation of MSW treatment and management is correlated with the climate change impact and the integrated solid waste management is introduced as a new approach for adapting the environmental protection awareness by considering the climate change for the long-term sustainable development orientation

Studying Municipal Solid Waste generation and Composition in the Urban areas of Bhutan

2010 |

Bhutan is a small landlocked country located in the eastern Himalaya between Tibet-China (in the North) and India (in the east, south and west). Its total population in 2005 was 672,425 (PHCB, 2006) and it has a total area of 38,394 km2 (MoA 2004). Like any other developing country, Bhutan too is facing the challenges of rapid urbanisation with more than 30\% of the country’s population living in the urban areas which is expected to increase in the next few decades. Although the national annual population growth rate in Bhutan is 1.28\% (MoWHS 2007, PHCB, 2006), its average urban population growth rate has been reported to be 7.3\% annually with the western region, including Thimphu, experiencing maximum growth rate of about 11\% (MoWHS 2007). Thimphu is the capital city of Bhutan with a total population of 79,185 (PHCB, 2006) in 2005 which is more than 40\% of the entire urban population in Bhutan.

Stakeholders' Issue of Concern Bahir Dar City - ISWM Plan

2010 | UNEP

Waste generators, service providers, actors in recycling & resource generation, regulator/government, and community are taken as the stakeholders in this study. Financial, social, technical, and environmental aspects are studied as per segregation at source, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal, and recycling and resource generation.

Assessment of the Solid Waste Management System of Bahir Dar Town And the Gaps identified for the Development of an ISWM Plan

2010 | UNEP

Identified gaps include the following: Even if there is a polluter-pay-principle (policy) in the country, was not practiced or implemented in the city. There is no set directives or guidelines how to pay fees equivalent to the service provided Awareness of the public towards solid waste management is at very low level Financial sources are not identified