Reports & Publication

Sanitation Finance in Rural Cambodia

2012 | The world bank, Water and Sanitation Program

This document presents the findings of a study on sanitation finance in Cambodia conducted for the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) with support from the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The overall objective of the assignment was to consider sustainable sanitation financing options with a focus on promoting access for the poorest. This guidance note contains an introduction on sanitation ਀nancing and subsidies, stating the cases for subsidies as well as some of their practical pitfalls. The study used data  (as of late 2009) from two case studies of rural sanitation ਀nance in Cambodia to illustrate the practical issues, sup-plemented by preliminary data from two sanitation marketing projects. The study also examined the potential use and effectiveness of (hardware) subsidies, conditional cash transfers (CCTs), and other ਀nancing approaches relevant for sanitation improvement. The document ends with recommendations for improved sanitation finance, including practical suggestions for sanitation programs in Cambodia. These recommendations bear particular relevance for the ADB’s Second Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project, which commenced in 2010.

Asian Sanitation Data Book 2008: Achieving Sanitation for All

2009 | Asian Development Bank

The first data book on sanitation for the Asia and Pacific region, this book features raw data and analyses on the sanitation situation in 27 cities. The initiative was realized in response to the needs of Asian cities and local governments, which gathered at the International Seminar on Sanitation 2007— Delivering Our Vision: Sanitation for All, organized by CITYNET, ADB, and the city government of Makati, at the ADB headquarters in Metro Manila, Philippines, in November 2007. Sanitation has long been an issue that has received little attention due to its complexity. The absence of relevant data has hindered cities and local governments from adopting appropriate policies and strategies to meet the provision of “sanitation for all.” Moreover, technologies that reflect the needs of communities, as well as the communities’ ability and willingness to pay for better sanitation, are limited. This publication, the first joint effort of CITYNET, the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), and Veolia Environnement, highlights the need for more work to be done on sanitation in Asia and the Pacific. Focus and action must be directed at accurate data collection and management to support decision making, appropriate and low-cost technologies, and the allocation of resources for the provision of sanitation. These are but a few issues that need immediate attention and action. Contents Summary of Findings Sanitation Comparison City Sanitation Profile Appendix

Identifying Constraints to Increasing Sanitation Coverage

2008 | The world bank, Water and Sanitation Program

This field note summarizes research from two studies undertaken in rural and peri-urban areas of Cambodia; one on the demand forlatrines among consumers, and the other on the supply of latrines by the private sector. It provides discussion on the opportunity toincrease latrine purchase and installation via market forces, andoutlines the recommended interventions on both the demand andsupply dimensions of the market to achieve this. There is a strong demand for latrines among the Cambodian population, yet this demand remains mostly unrealized. While there is a functioning market for latrines, it is constrained by a strong preference for unaffordable top-end designs on the consumer side, and a limited ability to supply lower cost or upgradable latrines on the supply side. These weaknesses can be addressed. It has been demonstratedthrough Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) efforts that the high-end design preference can be overcome and consumers will construct cheaper latrines if adequately motivated to do so. The supply side needs to be strengthened to provide for the cheapest and mid-range end of the market. The components ofcheaper designs are available. However, cheaper design options are not ‘packaged’ in a way that is obvious or easily accessible to consumers, nor with clear pricing information, nor in a way that maps out an upgrade path starting with a lower cost initialinvestment. Developing market strategies that supply the required packaged information, products and services and that equally focus on demand creation to persuade consumers to consider alternate and more affordable options, may help turn stated demand into an actual acquisition and contribute to increased sanitation coverage in the country.

Economic Impacts of Sanitation in Cambodia Summary

2008 | The world bank, Water and Sanitation Program

In 2004, only about 17\% of Cambodian people had access to improved sanitation, meaning that there were still more than 11 million Cambodians living with an unimproved latrine or with no latrine at all. Although the figure given by the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) in 2005 indicates the increase of access coverage to nearly 22\% in 2005, it is estimated that about 204,000 people need to gain access to improved latrines each year if Cambodia is to achieve the internationally-set Millennium Development Goal target of reducing by half in 2015 the proportion of people without improved sanitation from the base year of 1990. While there is a consensus that lack of access to clean water and improved sanitation has a variety of impacts, there is often a lack of evidence to affirm that poor sanitation imposes a significant burden on society. In response, the “Sanitation Impact” study, initiated by the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program, aims to generate sound evidence on the negative impacts of existing sanitation and hygiene conditions and the potential benefits of improvementsin sanitation and hygiene in Cambodia.

Optimising water and phosphorus management in the urban environmental sanitation system of Hanoi, Vietnam

2007 | Elsevier

Many areas in the world face clean water scarcity problems and phosphorus reserves are likely to be depleted in the near future. Still, a large amount of clean water is used to transport excreta through sewer systems. Most of the wastewater generated worldwide is discharged untreated into aquatic systems and leads to water pollution and loss of valuable nutrients. In Hanoi, Vietnam's capital city, high population and economic growth as well as industrialisation have led to a decrease in groundwater level and to serious river and lake pollution. A probabilistic model, simulating the impact of measures on groundwater abstraction and nutrient recovery, was used to determine the impact of policy changes in Hanoi. The results obtained reveal that harmonising environmental sanitation and agricultural systems with one another will considerably increase nutrient recovery for food production, lower expenditure for artificial fertilisers and reduce the nutrient load into the environment. The model can be applied in urban areas of developing countries to assist in the design of environmental sanitation concepts.

Guideline for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater

2006 | WHO, UNEP

The ultimate aim of these Guidelines is to protect and promote public health. Adequate capacity is required at the national level to maximize the benefit of the use of wastewater, excreta and greywater in agriculture and aquaculture, to minimize the health risks involved and to promote proper environmental management, ensuring long-term sustainability. An essential element of this national capacity consists of an enabling policy environment.  This chapter summarizes the information needed to formulate decision-making criteria, establish decision-making procedures and create effective institutional arrangements for their implementation.    The Guidelines are presented in four separate volumes: Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 1: Policy and regulatory aspects Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 2: Wastewater use in agriculture Guidelines for the safe use of wastwater, excreta and greywater. Volume 3: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture Guidelines for the safe use of wastwater, excreta and greywater. Volume 4: Excreta and greywater use in agriculture