| University of Cape Town
The purpose of this document is to identify and list appropriate Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) for all operational stages of the ISWMP of the City of Maseru, including source segregation, collection, transportation, sorting, treatment and disposal of different generated waste streams. This deliverable falls within Activity 4-A: Identification and Selection of ESTs, as stated in the Memorandum of Understanding concluded between the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the University of Cape Town (UCT) Environmental & Process Systems Engineering Research Group. Furthermore, a basic techno-economic analysis of the identified appropriate technologies has been carried out, whilst drawing basic specifications of equipment and technologies in order to facilitate procurement. Price ranges for technologies have been given where appropriate. The report on ESTs has been developed based on the structure of actions as given by the ISWMP; the purpose here is to create an interface for the synchronisation of proposed technology related activities with all strategic planning steps given by the ISWMP.
| University of Cape Town
An estimated total amount of 105,000 t/a of solid waste is generated in Maseru, stemming from the household, commercial, industrial, administrative, educational and medical sectors. Of these seven sectors, six have been covered by the baseline study in terms of figures. On the other hand the waste recovery and disposal side has only been dealt with in a qualitative way by the baseline study. No waste amounts have been recorded except for the recycling sector.
| Dr Anwar Baig
Municipal Solid Waste Generation and its Disposal Practices in Pakistan:BY Dr. Muhammad Anwar BaigInstitute of Environmental Science & Engineering (IESE)National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST) Solid waste can be defined as material that no longer has any value to the person who is responsible for it, and is not intended to be discharged through a pipe. It is generated by domestic, commercial, industrial, healthcare, agricultural and mineral extraction activities and accumulates in streets and public places. The words "garbage"Ã‚Â, "trash"Ã‚Â, "refuse" and "rubbish" are used to refer to some forms of solid waste.
| Law Firm News
With the formal presentation of MexicoÃ¢Â€Â™s National Program for the Prevention and Comprehen-sive Management of Waste, Felipe CalderÃƒÂ³nÃ¢Â€Â™s Administration has ÃƒÂ¿nally established and deÃƒÂ¿ned the Federal GovernmentÃ‚Â´s Policy in the matter. The Program basically establishes applicable policies and goals, including the adoption of the 3RÃ¢Â€Â™s policy and the application of the Shared Responsibility principle; thus, it should result in more interaction of the govern-ment with the private sector, encouraging management plans and agreements; and, as the corresponding instruments are developed, enforcement actions against certain speciÃƒÂ¿c producers and importers may be increased. The Program is a step forward towards a real com-prehensive waste management scheme in Mexico; although, there are still many actions to be taken before it can be said that General Waste LawÃ¢Â€Â™s ambitious goals have been achieved.
Solid waste management is currently regarded as one of the most immediate environmental issues in Myanmar. Provision of waste collection services, management activities, and initiation of 3 Rs practices are extensively undertaken by responsible organizations independently. Therefore, policy statement may differ from one organization to another. However, a common essence of the policies is ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢Â‚Â¬Ã…Â“ to develop systematic waste disposal and collection system in order for the city to be free of repulsive dump sites. These policies also called for cooperation and involvement of local authorities and communities in the waste management.
| Ministry of Local Development
Present Scenario and Future VisionÃ‚Â of Solid Waste Management in Nepal ByÃ‚Â Dr.Ã‚Â Sumitra Amatya Solid Waste Management Technical SupportÃ‚Â CenterÃ‚Â (SWMTSC) Ministry of Local Development Shreemahal, Pulchowk,Ã‚Â Lalitpur According to a survey done by Central Bureau of Statistics in 1996, Solid Waste Management is a number one environment problem in their cities (CBS,1997) that is followed by Water and Air pollution. Current Practices in SWM of Nepal depict that 58 municipalities generate about 500,000 tons per year; 41 newly added municipalities are unaccounted. Open dumping is still a common practice. Municipalities are often limited to street sweeping and dumping in the nearest river or vacant land. NGOs are involved in waste collection at the community level only. Awareness programs are gaining momentum in all the municipalities. Need to consider waste as a resource. Adopt integrated waste management system not just sweep & dump. Recycling can be significantly increased by home composting, biogas & central composting facility. Need to strengthen local governments. Clarity of roles & coordination with private parties Local government , Government and local communities. Solid Waste Management lessons (environment education) must include in the School Curriculum. Reduce green house emissions / Carbon reduction. Figure out the Carbon Credit Potential on SWM practices in Nepal. Need to reduce the effect of waste on health, in environment or aesthetics and recover resources from the waste. The waste management in Nepal should be based on integrated with the participation of PPPP.
| Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology
Waste Management InitiativesÃ‚Â and Challenges of Nepal Presented byÃ‚Â Dr.ChhewangÃ‚Â N.Ã‚Â Lama(SherpaÃ‚Â ) Ministry of Environment, Science andÃ‚Â Technology, Nepal. Policy and legal initiatives in solid waste management encompass current approach and practices. Quantity and types of waste generation along with 3R approach in management system pave way for Public, Private Partnership approach addressing certain challenges.
Morocco: Municipal Solid Waste Sector Institutional Development of the Municipal Solid Waste Sector in Morocco Overview In 2008, the World Bank began working with the Government of Morocco on a sweeping program to help deliver better solid waste management services, helping around 80 municipalities improve their collection services and upgrade their landfills. This joint effort has also pioneered an innovative national carbon finance program, boosted the participation of the private sector, and provided training to 1,600 local managers, improving the reach and quality of solid waste collection services and contributing to the effort to mitigate climate change effects. Challenge Out of a total Moroccan population of 30 million, 18 million live in urban areas. Moroccan cities are characterized by high population densities and rapid growth. These cities suffer from several forms of environmental degradation, including the effects of poor management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The cost of the environmental degradation due to solid waste was estimated at 0.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2003 (among the highest in the Middle East, North Africa region). In 2008, Morocco produced about 5 million tons of MSW per year and it is expected to reach 6.2 million in 2020. Prior to the reform initiative, only 70 percent of urban MSW was collected and less than 10 percent of collected waste was being disposed of in an environmentally and socially acceptable manner. There were 300 uncontrolled dumpsites, and about 3,500 waste-pickers, of which 10 percent were children, were living on and around these open dumpsites. Major issues and challenges in the sector prior to formulation of the World Bank-supported reform program included: Poor sector policy, focused mainly on "cleanliness" with very limited attention to waste disposal and treatment ; Weak legal and institutional framework, which constrained effective strategic planning and governance ; Ad-hoc fiscal transfers to municipalities and uncertain financial sustainability ; Poor cost effectiveness of public-private partnerships, mainly due to limited competition, lack of transparency, and poor accountability ; and Huge impacts on quality of life, public health, environment, and social and economic development. Ã‚Â Approach The World Bank has been supporting Morocco's efforts to improve economic, environmental, and social performance of MSW, building on a solid engagement with the Government over the past five years. World Bank support to the implementation of the sector reform has been anchored on an innovative and programmatic approach that has gone through successive stages. A first World Bank Development Policy Loan focused on establishing a national framework to implement a national policy and securing continued engagement of all concerned ministries and national agencies. The second loan focused more closely on the policy actions needed to reach the local level, where actual implementation of the MSW policy, as well as resulting outcomes, materialize. Results The program has supported about 80 Municipalities, representing more than 50\% of urban population in Morocco, to improve their collection services and upgrade their landfills. The share of properly disposed MSW increased from 10 percent to 30 percent. Government financial allowance to the sector increased by 80 percent between 2008 and 2011. Private sector now provides cleaning and garbage collection services to about 60 percent of the urban population compared to about 15 percent before the project. A multi-year training plan reached more than 1,600 local managers. An innovative carbon finance program at the national level is being designed to help local authorities mobilize additional financial resources, with potential revenues of approximately US$90 million over the next 10 years. In parallel, the program has promoted the early and systematic consideration of social concerns at all levels of the decision making chain for SWM modernization: Waste pickers inclusion initiatives are underway in Tangier, Casablanca Rabat and Agadir. Rabat waste pickers inclusion initiative is the most advanced one and it covers 130 pickers. Partners World Bank support to the MSW sector in Morocco has been implemented in close collaboration with other partners. Although there have been no co-financiers so far, the World Bank has worked very closely with other donors involved in MSW in Morocco, including the United Nations Development Programme, and Germany's GTZ and KfW, which have provided coordinated technical support. At the national level, the World Bank has worked closely with the Ministry of Economy and Finance, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Interior, and Fonds d'Equipment Communal, a public development bank providing financial support (loans) to Municipalities' infrastructure projects. Bank financing Through these two Development Policy Loans totaling US$271.3 million, the World Bank has established itself as a valued interlocutor in the MSW sector in Morocco. Close dialogue with concerned partners and stakeholders since the early stage of design and inclusive consultation with beneficiaries have been the cornerstones to ensure success of this program.
| Kathmandu Metropolitan City
Generation & Collection of KMC: Waste Generation is 0.3 kg/p/day making a total domestic waste gen. App. 246 ton/day and others: Commercial waste (12\%)app. 30 ton/day; Street Waste (12\%) app. 30 ton/day; Waste from VDC (12\%) 30 ton/day. Total Generation: 335 ton/day; Collection 306 ton/day; About 70\% waste are organic. Municipalities are completely responsible. Some new approaches are being tried out in KMC: Door-to-door collection, User fees, Source-separated collection, Composting, and Private sector participation. ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢Â‚Â¬Ã…Â“LandfillingÃƒÂ¢Ã¢Â‚Â¬Ã‚Â on the banks of Bagmati has stopped since the operation of Sisdol Landfill Site from June 5 while Preparation of Action Plan 2004-2015 (CKV) is in progress.
| University of Kalmar
The rapid population growth and urbanization in developing countries as Nepal constitute a threat to the environment. The urbanisation result in more waste and concurrently the development result in new life patterns, standard of living and attitudes change the waste composition. New industries are erected that changes the waste composition to include more and more hazardous waste. Along with the development comes the problems with solid waste and the situation in Kathmandu is at the moment precarious. The environmental problem caused by improper solid waste management in the expanding cities is one of the most urgent improvement issues for the government of Nepal. The main objective of this study was to make a survey of the conflicts of the solid waste management in Kathmandu and to identify issues for further investigations. The work was focused on Gokarna landfill site and the dumping of solid waste at Balkhu, along Bagmati River. To investigate the current situation in Kathmandu field studies and visits were carried out both at Gokarna landfill site and the present dumping site along Bagmati River as well as interviews with people involved in the solid waste management in Kathmandu. The results of the survey showed that co-operation between the municipality, governmental institutions and the private sector that do not exist today are necessary to enable improvements of the solid waste management. Additionally environmental laws and regulations with proper enforcements are needed. It came clear that education of the people in environmental issues such as solid waste management is essential to increase the environmental awareness and improve the situation. To clear what threat the sites constituted to the surroundings the water quality and the waste compositions were investigated. The water quality analysis of water samples taken in Bagmati River upstream and downstream the dumping at Balkhu showed that the water was heavily polluted, though further investigations are needed to clear to what extent the dumping at Balkhu contributes to the pollution. Literature studies showed that the pollution of Bagmati River has increased during later years. A handpicking analysis was carried out on one tonne of waste for dumping at Balkhu showed that the organic fraction was as high as 67 \%. Proper waste separation in combination with a compost plant in Kathmandu would greatly reduce the volume of waste for landfilling. Laboratory studies showed that the waste contains metals as well as heavy metals that eventually will leak out to the surroundings. Since the site does not have any fundamental protective structure, the dumping at Balkhu is considered to constitute a serious environmental threat that can not continue. A model, developed byÃ‚Â municipality, Sweden, was used as a checklist and structural model for inventory and risk assessment of the terminated Gokarna landfill site in Kathmandu to investigate the possibilities of using the model in future environmental inventories and risk assessments of old landfills in developing countries. The model showed to be useful in developing countries since the so-called number of uncertainty enable carrying out the inventory and the risk assessment even though expertise, information, lab facilities etc. are insufficient in the country. Since the model is meant to be used with a minimum of resources it is interesting to use in a developing country such as Nepal. The way the model investigates which landfill/dump that causes the worst environmental impact it gives the possibility to use available resources where they are most needed. By experiences interviews and field visits appear to be the most useful and feasible methods of collecting informative data for the investigation. Results from the water quality investigation, field visits and interviews were used in the investigation, following the risk assessment model, to eventually classify Gokarna landfill site as 2 (B) i.e. further investigations are needed to clear if the site constitutes a concrete environmental conflict. By comparing different solutions for the terminated Gokarna landfill site it came clear that a proper closure with possibly cover and treatment is the most reasonable alternative.