Reports & Publication

Solid Waste Management in the city of Kathmandu, Nepal

| University of Kalmar

The rapid population growth and urbanization in developing countries as Nepal constitute a threat to the environment. The urbanisation result in more waste and concurrently the development result in new life patterns, standard of living and attitudes change the waste composition. New industries are erected that changes the waste composition to include more and more hazardous waste. Along with the development comes the problems with solid waste and the situation in Kathmandu is at the moment precarious. The environmental problem caused by improper solid waste management in the expanding cities is one of the most urgent improvement issues for the government of Nepal. The main objective of this study was to make a survey of the conflicts of the solid waste management in Kathmandu and to identify issues for further investigations. The work was focused on Gokarna landfill site and the dumping of solid waste at Balkhu, along Bagmati River. To investigate the current situation in Kathmandu field studies and visits were carried out both at Gokarna landfill site and the present dumping site along Bagmati River as well as interviews with people involved in the solid waste management in Kathmandu. The results of the survey showed that co-operation between the municipality, governmental institutions and the private sector that do not exist today are necessary to enable improvements of the solid waste management. Additionally environmental laws and regulations with proper enforcements are needed. It came clear that education of the people in environmental issues such as solid waste management is essential to increase the environmental awareness and improve the situation. To clear what threat the sites constituted to the surroundings the water quality and the waste compositions were investigated. The water quality analysis of water samples taken in Bagmati River upstream and downstream the dumping at Balkhu showed that the water was heavily polluted, though further investigations are needed to clear to what extent the dumping at Balkhu contributes to the pollution. Literature studies showed that the pollution of Bagmati River has increased during later years. A handpicking analysis was carried out on one tonne of waste for dumping at Balkhu showed that the organic fraction was as high as 67 \%. Proper waste separation in combination with a compost plant in Kathmandu would greatly reduce the volume of waste for landfilling. Laboratory studies showed that the waste contains metals as well as heavy metals that eventually will leak out to the surroundings. Since the site does not have any fundamental protective structure, the dumping at Balkhu is considered to constitute a serious environmental threat that can not continue. A model, developed by  municipality, Sweden, was used as a checklist and structural model for inventory and risk assessment of the terminated Gokarna landfill site in Kathmandu to investigate the possibilities of using the model in future environmental inventories and risk assessments of old landfills in developing countries. The model showed to be useful in developing countries since the so-called number of uncertainty enable carrying out the inventory and the risk assessment even though expertise, information, lab facilities etc. are insufficient in the country. Since the model is meant to be used with a minimum of resources it is interesting to use in a developing country such as Nepal. The way the model investigates which landfill/dump that causes the worst environmental impact it gives the possibility to use available resources where they are most needed. By experiences interviews and field visits appear to be the most useful and feasible methods of collecting informative data for the investigation. Results from the water quality investigation, field visits and interviews were used in the investigation, following the risk assessment model, to eventually classify Gokarna landfill site as 2 (B) i.e. further investigations are needed to clear if the site constitutes a concrete environmental conflict. By comparing different solutions for the terminated Gokarna landfill site it came clear that a proper closure with possibly cover and treatment is the most reasonable alternative.

Environmental GuidelinesonSolid Waste Management in Kingdom of Cambodia

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Now with the economic development and increasing people the requirement using equipment for their every day living is increased too, these are the reasons of the environmental issue and because of the people through out their solid waste around the country (provinces and cities) that it is negatively effect to the public health and environment. By understanding of this issue, the Royal of Cambodian government has cared and put out some measures as: preparing regulations for ensuring proper solid waste management with environmental safety, capacity building of skill staffs, educating people to understand the negative effectiveness of waste that will happen to themselves, the proper way of waste disposal with environmental sanitation and encouraging the involved institutions and private companies to behave regulations. This environmental guideline has been gotten by trying very hard of Ministry of Environment and COMPED organization partner, this environmental guideline on Solid Waste Management in Royal Cambodia is fully detail that can be encouraged to behave the ready prepared regulations and it is an important base to help the involved institutions especially province-city authorities and private sectors to improve their Solid Waste Management which is facing the problems and make it better in the future.

PBDEs and PCBs in sediments of the Thi Nai Lagoon (Central Vietnam) and soils from its mainland

2013 | Elsevier

Concentration and distribution of PCBs, PCB 11, and PBDEs in both surficial sediment and soil samples,taken from a zone subject to recent accelerated development, were investigated to assess the environ-mental quality and understand both natural and anthropogenic processes that influence contaminantbehaviors. Values of PCB and PBDE are in the lower range of those reported in literature, typical of lowimpacted coastal zones. This could be due to efficient processes of resuspension and removal. Contami-nants in the lagoon showed higher concentrations in sediments from sites close to the city and the out-falls of the industrial area, while soils showed maximum values in the northern samples. In addition,congener patterns and statistical analyses suggest the presence of effective degradation processes, espe-cially for PBDEs, with the exception of the most concentrated samples that may indicate a direct input.PCB 11 is a significant component (up to 18\%) in most lagoon sediments. Its presence is strongly associ-ated with fine particles, thus the distribution seems to be driven mainly by the system hydrodynamic anddoes not trace the sources. Due to evaporation, only flooded agricultural soils show a similar relativeabundance of this congener

Necessity of normalization to aluminum to assess the contamination by heavy metals and arsenic in sediments near Haiphong Harbor, Vietnam

2012 | Elsevier

While assessing many different aspects of contamination by heavy metals and arsenic in sediments, the natural variability in element contents which depends on the grain-size and mineralogical composition of sediments, needs to be taken into account. In previous studies, the normalization of element contents to a reference element such as Al was commonly applied to compensate for granulometric and mineralogical effects. In the present study, through the investigation on the contamination of heavy metals and arsenic in sediments near Haiphong Harbor, the necessity of the normalization towards Al is assessed. The results indicate that before Al-normalization, the occurrences on the source and historical trend of contamination by heavy metals and arsenic can be masked by the distribution of clay (Φ < 2 μm) or fine (Φ < 63 μm) fractions as well as Al, Fe and organic matter. In contrast, after Al-normalization, spatial distribution of elements illustrates that Cr, Ni, Pb and Mn are enriched by the anthropogenic activities in the Haiphong industrial and harbor zone while As, Cd and Cu come from upstream sources, and Co and Zn indicate only locally-elevated contaminations. The vertical profile of elements in core sediments illustrates that the anthropogenic input of heavy metals and arsenic increased in recent years. Moreover, the assessment of the degree of contamination based on the Enrichment Factor (EF) and obtained local background values indicates a minor enrichment of all heavy metals and arsenic. This is not in line with the assessment based on the sediment quality guidelines or reference values from upper-continental or average-continental crust which states the “serious” contamination of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and especially As. Therefore, the normalization to Al is necessary in interpreting the source, historical trend and degree of contamination by heavy metals and arsenic in sediments of the study area.

Medical Waste and Human Rights

2011 | Health Care Without Harm

The report is divided into two sections: the first reviews the human rights in question at the global level and includes the listing of scientific references and newspaper articles.  Scientific articles are cited in the test in the normal way; newspaper articles are not all cited in the text, but are included to give the reader the fullest possible picture. Where possible, URLs are provided.

A Comprehensive Environmetal Health Agenda for Hospitals and Health Systems Around the World

2011 | Health Care Without Harm

We are living in a moment in which the twin crises of public health and the environment are merging, the confluence of the two magnifying the destruc-tive power of each.   As they run together, the crosscurrents of disease and ecological deteriora-tion build on one another, becoming increasingly turbulent and damaging forces that are tearing at the very fabric of our societies.  Climate change, chemical contamination, and unsustainable re-source use are all exacerbating ill-health the world over.  These environmental health problems are increasing pressure on, and eroding the capacity of, already thinly stretched health care systems. Meanwhile, the health sector itself is paradoxically contributing to these very environmental health problems, even as it attempts to address their impacts.  Through the products and technologies it deploys, the resources it consumes, the waste it generates and the buildings it constructs and operates, the health sector is a significant source of pollution around the world, and therefore an unintentional contributor to trends that undermine public health.Yet the converse is also true.  While there is a confluence of crises, there is also a growing convergence of solutions that foster both public health and environmental sustainability, pointing the way toward a greener, healthier future.  

Medical Waste Management

2011 | ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross

The world is generating more and more waste and hospi-tals and health centres are no exception. Medical waste can be infectious, contain toxic chemicals and pose contamina-tion risks to both people and the environment. If patients are to receive health care and recover in safe surroundings, waste must be disposed of safely. Choosing the correct course of action for the dìerent types of waste and setting priorities are not always straightfor-ward, particularly when there is a limited budget. This manual provides guidance on what is essential and what actions are required to ensure the good management of waste.Drawing on the most up-to-date professional practice, the manual provides practical recommendations for use in the dìerent contexts where the ICRC works. It includes techni-cal sheets ready for use, ideas for training and examples of job descriptions for hospital stà members. The guidance in this manual is applicable in resource poor countries as well as in countries where there is a more developed health infrastructure.

Healthcare Waste in Asia

2010 |

Realizing the threats posed by healthcare waste, the Thematic Working Group on Solid and Hazardous Waste under the Regional Forum on Environment and Health considered it as an important area for action.The 3RKH and TWGSHW share common interests on healthcare waste as their priority areas. In view of this commonality, 3RKH was tasked with the assignment of preparing a Healthcare Waste status report. The task was initiated by 3RKH with the support from ADB and TWGSHW in turn supported by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan (MOEJ). This report titled “Healthcare Waste in Asia: Intuitions & Insights” is the outcome of the study. Understanding the liability of the study and its possible reflections on future decisions, information sources were selected with due care. Ministries and organizations related to healthcare waste were considered the key sources of information. The principal source of information was the reports and presentations of TWGSHW country representatives’ made during the 1st meeting of the Thematic Working Group on Solid and Hazardous Waste, 28-29 February 2008, Singapore.The core of the report consists of three Chapters, Country Reports, Global Experiences and Lessons to Learn and finally the Recommendations. The country reports present an overview of the country following which a profile of the healthcare facilities in the country is provided. The succeeding section of the country report discusses the healthcare waste scenario and management in the facilities. The subsequent section presents current institutional set up and its contribution to the HCWM and the prevailing policies, regulations and legislations. The next section includes multilateral and international organization involvement in HCWM.

Recent levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi, Vietnam

2010 | Elsevier

The occurrence, temporal trend, sources and toxicity of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were investigated in sediment samples from the sewer system of Hanoi City, including the rivers Nhue, To Lich, Lu, Set, Kim Nguu and the Yen So Lake. In general, the concentrations of the pollutants followed the order DDTs > PCBs > HCHs (β-HCH) > HCB. However, the pollution pattern was different for the DDTs and PCBs when the sampling locations were individually evaluated. The concentrations of the DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, and HCB ranged from 4.4 to 1100, 1.3 to 384, <0.2 to 36 and <0.2 to 22 ng/g d.w., respectively. These levels are higher than at any other location in Vietnam. Compared to measurements from 1997, the DDTs, PCBs, β-HCH and HCB levels show an increasing trend with DDT/DDE ratios, indicating very recent inputs into the environment although these persistent compounds are banned in Vietnam since 1995.

Minding the Gap: Research Priorities to Address Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

2010 | Health Care Without Harm , School of Public Health: UIC

Worldwide, pharmaceuticals save millions of lives by preventing and treating diseases, and improve the quality of life for those with a chronic condition. But these lifesaving properties come with an environmental downside. Recent widespread detection of pharmaceuticals in our waterways has generated publicconcern over the potential environmental and human health impacts associated with exposure. The unintended movement of biologically active, toxic, and hormone-disrupting compounds from pharmaceuticals to wastewater effluents and drinking water sources is an international problem that has been documented and publicly reported by government experts and academic researchers for nearly two decades. Health Care Without Harm, an international nonprofit coalition with more than 450 member organizations,is the leader in effecting environmentally responsiblechanges in health care through waste minimization, safer products, and green building. The purposes of this report from the Health Care Research Collaborative are to provide an overview of known information about the life cycle of exposure pathways of pharmaceuticals in the environment, to identifythe gaps in our knowledge, and to make a series of recommendations for further research, policy discussion, and action along the pipeline of exposure pathways. The management of pharmaceuticals throughout their life cycle is a global issue. Most of the studies reported in this paper were conducted in countries other than the United States, such as Sweden, France, Germany, Italy, Canada, and China, although some studies are drawn from the United States, reflecting the global nature of this issue. This paper builds on the Natural Resources Defense Council’s review of the literature, Dosed Without Prescription, and explores additional ideas put forth by other countries that have successfully grappled with this issue.