2009 | UNEP
Madhyapur Thimi Municipality (MTM) is one of the highest urbanizing towns. It is located in the district of Bhaktapur in Bagmati Zone, Central Development Region of Nepal. Madhyapur Thimi got its municipality status only in 1996 (B.S. 2053). Five Village Development Committees namely Bode, Chapacho, Balkumari, Dibyaswori and Nagadesh prior to this declaration were amalgamated to form this municipality.
2009 | UNEP
The world's annual consumption of plastic materials has increased from around 5 million tonnes in the 1950s to nearly 100 million tonnes; thus, 20 times more plastic is produced today than 50 years ago. Plastic waste recycling is one of the most established recycling activities in economically developed countries. In most of the situations, recycling of waste plastics is becoming viable in developing countries as well, as it generates resources and provides jobs. The recycling of waste plastics also has a great potential for resource conservation and GHG emissions reduction, such as producing diesel fuel from plastic waste. As raw materials, wastes plastics have attractive potentials for large-scale industries and community-level enterprises. For efÃƒÂ¯Ã‚Â¬Ã‚Âcient and effective conversion of waste plastics into a resource, appropriate selection of technologies is one of the vital pre-conditions. This compendium is compiled to assist in the selection process for those technologies. The geographical scope of the compendium is global. Thus, technologies listed range from highly sophisticated equipment from industrialized countries to simple technologies from the developing countries. Technologies listed in the Compendium are limited to the information which could be generated within available time and budget.
2009 | UNEP
It is important to put into context the waste plastics generation in relation with the overall solid waste generated. Quantification and characterization of the solid waste stream as a whole is recommended prior to focusing on waste plastics. Further, plastics to fuel conversion technologies may require the mixing of waste plastics with organic waste, including paper and wood, as additional feedstock; hence the quantification of these streams of waste will also be useful to be known. These guidelines for waste plastics could be used as stand alone set of guidelines, if the target is to characterize and quantify only waste plastics, or could be used as an additional set of guidelines to narrow down the characterization and quantification of solid waste with reference to waste plastics.
2009 | unep
Globally, 140 billion metric tons of biomass1 is generated every year from agriculture. This volume of biomass can be converted to an enormous amount of energy and raw materials. Equivalent to approximately 50 billion tons of oil2, agricultural biomass waste converted to energy can substantially displace fossil fuel, reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and provide renewable energy to some 1.6 billion people in developing countries, which still lack access to electricity3. As raw materials, biomass wastes have attractive potentials for large-scale industries and community-level enterprises. Biomass takes the form of residual stalks, straw, leaves, roots, husk, nut or seed shells, waste wood and animal husbandry waste. Widely available, renewable, and virtually free, waste biomass is an important resource. With the global campaign to combat climate change, countries are now looking for alternative sources of energy to minimize green house gas (GHG) emissions. Aside from being carbon neutral, the use of biomass for energy reduces dependency on the consumption of fossil fuel; hence, contributing to energy security and climate change mitigation.
2009 | UNEP
Thes books areÃ‚Â in the series of training manuals on developing Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) plan. This manual aims to build the capacity of practitioners and policy makers in waste characterization and quantifiÃ‚Âcation with projections for future for all the waste generating sectors viz.: residential, commercial, construction and demolition, healthcare and industrial sectors. Ã‚Â
2009 | Elsevier
Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. TodayÃ¢Â€Â™s rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term Ã¢Â€Â˜zero emission systemsÃ¢Â€Â™. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with todayÃ¢Â€Â™s technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material inputÃ¢Â€Â“output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.