2009 | Vietnam Environment Administration
2009 | Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace
Solid waste management consists of two sectors: the formal operation and the informal scavenging activities. Because scavenging contributes to solid waste management economically and environmentally and also serves as an occupation for some of the most impoverished in the city, recently it has become the focus of scholarly deliberation. A notion of integrating this informal sector of SWM into the formal one is proposed by different scholars. Though they appear to differ in terms of approaches and arguments, their proposed policies are place-based. This paper examines the situations of solid waste management, both the formal and the informal, in Phnom Penh city, and discusses the feasibility of integrating the informal scavenging into the formal management of solid waste. It raises questions about the possible unintended consequences when informal scavenging is integrated through such place-based approach.Ã‚Â
2009 | Elsevier
Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material inputÃƒÂ¢Ã¢Â‚Â¬Ã¢Â€Âœoutput model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.
2008 | WaterAid
This paper reflects the existing management systems practiced in various areas of Nepal in managing solid waste and contains initiatives of municipalities; national and local NGOs/CBOs; public and private entities. This paper helps to transfer the lessons and existing practices regarding soild waste managment and encourages urban, peri urban and emerging towns for similar initiatives in urban sanitation.
2008 | UNEP
Phnom Penh Municipality (PPM) is the capital city of the Royal Kingdom of Cambodia with a total land area of 376.95 Km2. It is equal to 0.20\% of the total land area of the country. Administratively, PPM is divided into 7 districts (up to 2008) but now one more district has been determined, 76 communes, 689 villages and 4,320 groups. The population of the city is approximately 1,080,519 consisting of 188,769 households out of which 43\% live in urban area and 57\% in rural area. Population growth in the city is 3.92\%. Double-digit economic growth rates in recent years have triggered an economic boom in Cambodia, with new hotels, restaurants, and residential buildings springing up around the PPM. Due to improved living standards, globalization, international trade, and tourism, the consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has rapidly increased in the urban centers in the country. Since Cambodia does not have manufacturing base for electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), it is importing both brand new and second hand EEE to cater to existing demand. This is leading to generation of E-waste and its management as a major issue in cities/ urban centers in Cambodia. According to the CEA survey report of E-waste in Cambodia, it was found that there exists some environmental and human health concerns though the utilization of second hand EEE/ Used EEE. Therefore, there is a need to further consider strengthening, monitoring and managing imported EEE with reasonable and useable conditions.
2008 | Elsevier
Currently the potential threat of climate change represents one of the main environmental concerns worldwide. Consequently, most of the developed countries are implementing measures at different levels in order to tackle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Amongst the measures agreed internationally and encapsulated within the Kyoto Protocol, the reduction of GHG emissions associated with agriculture and organic waste management, and the enhancement of the C sink capacity of agricultural soils are seen to be of particular importance.