Reports & Publication

Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass into a Resource: Compendium of Technologies

2009 | UNEP

Globally, 140 billion metric tons of biomass wastes are generated every year from agriculture equivalent to about 50 billion tons of oil. This energy can displace fossil fuel, reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and provide renewable energy to some 1.6 billion people in developing countries, which still lack access to electricity. As raw materials, biomass wastes have attractive potentials for large-scale industries and community-level enterprises. For efficient and effective conversion, appropriate selection of technologies is one of the vital pre-conditions. This compendium is compiled to assist in selection process for the technologies. This is a compilation of information about the technologies for converting waste agricultural biomass into material or energy resource. The technologies listed range from highly sophisticated equipment from industrialized countries to simple technologies from the developing countries. Different levels of use are also considered, i.e., commercial use, demonstration projects, and research level technologies. The technologies for different type of waste agricultural biomass and size of output are also considered. Technologies listed in the Compendium are limited to those that use cellulosic agricultural waste biomass.

Disaster Waste Management Guidelines

2011 | Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit

Disaster waste is a well-recognized threat to health, safety and the environment, and can also be a major impediment to post-disaster rescue operations.Experience shows that disaster waste is often managed in an ad hoc manner, however, and that substantial improvements can be made in future response efforts. These guidelines, developed collaboratively by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency – or MSB for short – and the Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit, aim to do just that.  They represent much of the best current knowledge and lessons learned on disaster waste management, and provide national authorities and international relief experts alike with sound and practical advice to help them manage disaster waste.  They were developed following a request by governments at the international Advisory Group on Environment Emergencies, and are based on extensive consultations with national and international stakeholders.These guidelines are an important start to improving the management of disaster waste.  They must be complemented by efforts to ensure their uptake and regular use through a range of disaster management mechanisms.  We look forward to working with a wide range of stakeholders to achieve this.

Beyond the Waste Bin: A Waste Management Continuum

2010 | United Nations Environment Programme

Presentation by :Beyond the Waste Bin:Hari SrinivasUnited Nations Environment ProgrammeInternational Environment Technology Centre Ask any City Mayor on Waste … Inefficient collection system / No collection system Financial constraints Apathy and/or Lack of participation of citizens on programmes Set-up and alternatives to sanitary land-fill system Waste segregation at source Recycling of solid waste Disposal of hospital and/or hazardous solid waste Treatment of food waste and/or biodegradables High cost of establishing new and modern disposal system such as plasma technology Concept that "waste management" is a municipal responsibility No standard for management of solid waste in country Amount of waste increases with urbanization Disposal of plastic dishware

National 3R Strategy Development

2009 | IGES

The Programme of National 3R Strategy Development was initiated as one of the outcomes of the Ministerial Conference on the 3R Initiative held in Tokyo, Japan, in March 2005. The project was funded by the Ministry of the Environment of Japan and the Asian Development Bank (for Viet Nam only) and jointly implemented by the United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD), the United Nations Environmental Programme / Regional Resource Centre in Asia and the Pacific (AIT/UNEP RRC.AP), and the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES).  In anticipation of Asia’s serious waste and resource-related challenges together with the region’s rapid economic development, the project has aimed to disseminate and raise awareness on the 3R concept and to foster strong political leadership for the 3R implementation in Asian countries.

Resource use and waste management in Vietnam hotel industry

2005 | Elsevier

The hotel industry of Vietnam is expanding rapidly with increasing international arrivals and domestic tourists. At the same time, mounting costs of resources and impacts of waste could affect the income, environmental performance and public image of the hotel sector. The hotel industry’s resource management (energy and water) would contribute to the long-term sustainability of the tourism sector. This paper reports the results of a study conducted to assess the resource use and management in the hotel industry in Vietnam. This was obtained by carrying out a survey in 50 hotels on energy and water consumption, and waste generation. The energy and water use, as well as the waste generated in the various hotel categories have been estimated and compared with those in other countries. The current practices in the hotels to address these issues are highlighted, and benchmarks for efficient use of resources in Vietnamese hotels are presented.

Pacific Environment Outlook


The Pacific Environment Outlookwas prepared simultaneously with the Pacific Regional Assessment on SustainableDevelopment to feed into the Barbados +10 process and ensure consistency of much of reporting.Much of theinformation has been drawn from national and regional reporting to the World Summit on Sustainable Development(WSSD), preparations for the Barbados +10,and from key reports for international and regional multilateralenvironmental agreements.The Pacific Environment Outlookpresents environmental trends by assimilating the drivers that directly and indirectlyaffect the state of the environment. It examines the linkages between social and economic activities and theenvironment in the Pacific SIDS,highlighting their social,economic and environmental vulnerability.The use of nationalassessment reports for the Barbados +10 has enabled the portrayal of national and regional priorities in terms ofthematic environmental issues and cross-cutting institutional capacity needs. This should place Pacific Island Countriesand Territories in a better position to ensure that initiatives to address the human impacts on the environmentincorporate means to reduce socio-economic pressures.It is my sincere hope that this report — Pacific Environment Outlook— will be a useful resource during deliberationsat the Barbados +10 Conference.

Solid Waste Management in Vietnam - An Industrial Ecology Study

| Columbia University

In the past decade, strong economic growth and uncontrolled urbanization have greatly magnified the problems with Vietnam’s solid waste management system, pushing waste management to the forefront of environmental challenges with which it must contend. Not only has there been an increase in the amounts of waste generated, the composition of the waste has changed as well. The current system is already overtaxed due to lack of institutional capacity and insufficient human and capital resources as can be evidenced by low collection rates and inadequate waste facilities. Given socio-economic trends, the issue of how to deal with its solid waste will only become more critical as Vietnam industrializes.

The world Bank Group - Tajikistan Partnership program snapshot

2014 | World Bank

Due to underinvestment, the water supply and sanitation infrastructure has suffered extensive degradation over recent decades and needs substantial rehabilitation. Because of the limited financial and operational capacity of operators, water supply and sanitation systems are inadequately maintained and renewed, and their degradation results in unreliable and inefficient service. The availability of sustainable drinking water and sanitation services is a challenge in both urban and rural areas, with only 59 percent of the population having access to a public water supply (versus the 79 percent Millennium Development Goal [MDG] target for 2015). In urban areas, approximately 50 percent of the population has house connections, and 32 percent yard connections. In rural areas, only 20 percent have access to centralized water supply systems, mainly through public standpipes and yard connections. Water quality in most systems does not meet national drinking standards. Furthermore, only 14 percent of the population has access to centralized sanitation services (44 percent in urban areas and 3 percent in rural areas). Finally, most urban centers do not have adequate solid waste collection, disposal, or recycling.

Optimizing Municipal Solid Waste collection using Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization in GIS based environments: A case study at Danang city, Vietnam

2014 | Elsevier

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an increasing concern at any municipality in the world, and is one of the primary factors that contribute greatly to the rising of climate change and global warming. MSW collection and disposal especially in the context of developing countries are indeed the urgent requirements for the sustainable development of environment and landscape, which rule over the quality-of-life and life expectancy of human being. In this paper, we concentrate on MSW collection at Danang city, which is one of four largest municipalities in Vietnam having high quantity of the average waste load per person and is bearing negative impacts of climate change such as severe weather conditions and natural disasters as a result. A novel vehicle routing model for the MSW collection problem at Danang city is presented. A novel hybrid method between Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization and ArcGIS is proposed to generate optimal solutions from the vehicle routing model of Danang. Experimental results on the real dataset of Danang show that the proposed hybrid method obtains better total collected waste quantity than the relevant ones including the manual MSW collection procedure that is currently applied at this city.

Remote Rural Communities Development Project (RRCDP) to the rescue of Cardamom and Citrus Industry in Bhutan


Citrus (mandarin orange as commonly called) and cardamom are two top export cash crops that contribute substantially to Bhutanese GDP. These two commodities featured as the top 9th and 10thexport items for Bhutan in the Bhutan Trade Statistics 2012 earning Nu. 452.63 million and Nu. 424.68 million respectively.   However, over the last decade or so, the industry has been hit by diseases; Citrus greening or HLB and Cardamom wilt & blight disease causing considerable damage and loss to the horticulture industry. The only way to cope with these diseases, was to get rid of the existing diseased stocks and replace it with disease free plants. It was, however, difficult to get disease free planting materials in want of adequate propagation houses. To the respite of this problem, RRCDP project, a World Bank loan project at MoAF has supported construction of propagation houses and supply of disease free grafted citrus seedlings and disease free cardamom seedlings. The project has already constructed seven cardamom propagation houses and a citrus propagation house at the National Seed Centre, Bhur. The cardamom propagation houses were constructed at a cost of Nu. 10,530,132.19 while the citrus propagation house was constructed at a cost of Nu. 9,574,123.88. Propagation of the planting materials has already started in the newly constructed propagation houses. The benefit of these propagation houses would extend beyond the project areas. From 2015 onwards, an estimated 60,000 numbers of citrus grafts and 252,000 numbers of cardamom seedlings will be available for sale on a yearly basis at the National Seed Centre, Bhur. This will benefit the citrus and cardamom growers as well as the nation in reviving the cash crop industry and in generating much needed revenue. Rehabilitation of the diseased orchards and plantations are also a priority activity for the Department of Agriculture in the 11th Five Year Plan.