2006 | UNEP
Wuxi city, located close to the metropolis of Shanghai (160 km west of Shanghai) has developed a new industrial township called the Wuxi New District (WND). WND is one of top ten national level development zones. As per 2006, it covered an area of 200km2, housed more than 2,000 enterprises and had a population of 250,000 including 140,000 industrial workers. The total output of WND was more than RMB 166 billion.Ã‚Â Ã‚Â Since its foundation in 1992, WND has evolved to be a major industrial park in the Yangtze River Delta. WND has been a strong showcase for the rapid industrial development that the People's Republic of China has achieved in the last few decades. A broad range of industries has been set up in the WND, and its economic growth has spurred the entire region, including the Microelectronic, precision machinery and auto-parts sectors. Related service/supporting industry sectors are also emerging rapidly in WND. WND is owned and managed by the New District Administrative Committee of Wuxi PeopleÃ¢Â€Â™s Municipal Government, second largest city in Jiangsu Province of the People's Republic of China.
Sixty percent of around 2,900 tones/day MSW in Sri Lanka is collected in the Western Province while 43\% and 25\% in Colombo District and Colombo Municipal limits, respectively. Furthermore, though legal responsibility is with local authorities, no proper execution is observed in most cases.
2006 | Elsevier
The population of Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, increased seven times from 1950 to 1980 with a current population of over 10 million inhabitants. The majority of the cityÃƒÂ¢Ã¢Â‚Â¬Ã¢Â„Â¢s residents are poor. The residents make a heavy demand on resources and, at the same time, generate large quantities of solid waste. Approximately 4 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually in the city, including approximately 0.5 million of untreated industrial waste. This is approximately 1.1 kg/cap/day. EVorts by the various waste management agencies set up by the state government to keep its streets and neighborhoods clean have achieved only minimal success. This is because more than half of these wastes are left uncollected from the streets and the various locations due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of the waste management system. Whilst the benefits of proper solid waste management (SWM), such as increased revenues for municipal bodies, higher productivity rate, improved sanitation standards and better health conditions, cannot be overemphasized, it is important that there is a reduction in the quantity of recoverable materials in residential and commercial waste streams to minimize the problem of MSW disposal. This paper examines the status of recovery and recycling in current waste management practice in Lagos, Nigeria. Existing recovery and recycling patterns, recovery and recycling technologies, approaches to materials recycling, and the types of materials recovered from MSW are reviewed. Based on these, strategies for improving recovery and recycling practices in the management of MSW in Lagos, Nigeria are suggested.
2006 | Elsevier
Many thousands of people in developing country cities depend on recycling materials from waste for their livelihoods. With the focus of the Millennium Development Goals on poverty reduction, and of waste strategies on improving recycling rates, one of the major challenges in solid waste management in developing countries is how best to work with this informal sector to improve their livelihoods, working conditions and efficiency in recycling. The general characteristics of informal recycling are reviewed, highlighting both positive and negative aspects. Despite the health and social problems associated with informal recycling, it provides significant economic benefits that need to be retained. Experience shows that it can be highly counterproductive to establish new formal waste recycling systems without taking into account informal systems that already exist. The preferred option is to integrate the informal sector into waste management planning, building on their practices and experience, while working to improve efficiency and the living and working conditions of those involved. Issues associated with integrating informal recycling into the formal waste management sector are discussed.
2005 | WORLD BANK
ABSTRACT The development objective of the Municipal Infrastructure Development Project for Tajikistan is to improve the availability, quality and efficiency of delivery of basic municipal services to the population of the towns which participate in the project. This Paper seeks the approval of the Country Director for a second level restructuring to extend the closing date of the project. The implementation performance and the outcome outlook of the project are satisfactory. The project is currently completing its third investment phase. Since the last supervision mission in November 2011, disbursements under the Municipal Infrastructure Development Project (MIDP) have continued to progress, with a current actual disbursed balance of USD 15.1 million, or approximately 91.5 percent of total funding. The procurement performance is satisfactory. The overall financial management arrangements are considered moderately satisfactory and acceptable to the Bank. The FY2010 audit report was found to be satisfactory to the Bank. The Project Management Unit (PMU) submits quarterly Financial Management Reports (FMRs) on time and they are satisfactory to the Bank. The achievement of the Project Development Objective (PDO) is highly likely given the fact that many of the outcome indicators have already been met. This will be the second extension of the project. In July 11, 2011 the project was restructured in first level which consisted of: (1) re-allocation of the grant proceeds; (2) trigger of a new safeguard policy on involuntary resettlement; and (3) extension of the closing date of the project from August 31, 2011 to February 28, 2012. Details on project...
2005 | Elsevier
This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1\% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56\%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60\% of the urban population on only 5\% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored.